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After an infection, T cells that carry the CD8 marker are activated and undergo a characteristic kinetic sequence of rapid expansion, subsequent contraction and formation of memory cells. The pool of naive T-cell clones is diverse and contains cells bearing T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) that differ in their affinity for the same antigen. How these(More)
Macrophages can be both beneficial and detrimental after CNS injury. We previously showed rapid accumulation of macrophages in injured immature brain acutely after ischemia-reperfusion. To determine whether these macrophages are microglia or invading monocytes, we subjected post-natal day 7 (P7) rats to transient 3 h middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion(More)
Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the CNS, can be both beneficial and detrimental to the brain. These cells play a central role as mediators of neuroinflammation associated with many neurodegenerative states, including cerebral ischemia. Because microglial cells are both a major source of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO)(More)
Pannus formation, in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), is angiogenesis-dependent. PPI-2458 [(1R)-1-carbamoyl-2-methyl]-carbamic acid-(3R,3S,5S, 6R)-5-methoxy-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)oxiranyl]-1-oxaspiro(2*5)oct-6-yl ester], a new fumagillin derivative known to inhibit methionine aminopeptidase 2(More)
We previously showed that insulin has a profound effect to suppress pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4 expression in rat skeletal muscle. In the present study, we examined whether insulin's effect on PDK4 expression is impaired in acute insulin-resistant states and, if so, whether this change is accompanied by decreased insulin's effects to stimulate Akt(More)
We evaluated the sensitivity of pulsed Arterial Spin Labelling (pASL) for the detection of changes in regional cerebral blood perfusion (CBP) during and after intra-venous (i.v.) infusion of an opioid agonist (fentanyl) and an opioid antagonist (naloxone). Twenty-three subjects were scanned four times, receiving i.v. infusion of fentanyl, naloxone, placebo(More)
The immaturity of the CNS at birth greatly affects injury after stroke but the contribution of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the differential response to stroke in adults and neonates is poorly understood. We asked whether the structure and function of the BBB is disrupted differently in neonatal and adult rats by transient middle cerebral artery(More)
BACKGROUNDS & AIMS The clinical severity of cirrhosis varies widely. We investigated whether histological sub-classification of cirrhosis using the Laennec system can discriminate different outcomes among patients with cirrhosis. METHODS One hundred and seventy-five patients with chronic liver disease who underwent liver biopsy and showed stage 3 or 4(More)
Metabolite profiling of red and white pitayas (Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus) was performed using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry with multivariate analysis. Different species and parts of pitayas (red peel, RP; white peel, WP; red(More)