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Amyloid beta peptide (A beta), the major protein constituent of senile plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is believed to facilitate the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in the latter stages of this disease. Early attempts to characterize the structure-activity relationship of A beta toxicity in vitro were compromised by the inability to(More)
Several neurological diseases, including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, are characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein phosphorylated at Ser-129 (p-Ser-129). The kinase or kinases responsible for this phosphorylation have been the subject of intense investigation. Here we submit evidence that polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2, also known(More)
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) appears critical to Alzheimer's disease. To clarify possible mechanisms of Abeta action, we have quantified Abeta-induced gene expression in vitro by using Abeta-treated primary cortical neuronal cultures and in vivo by using mice transgenic for the Abeta precursor (AbetaP). Here, we report that aggregated, but not nonaggregated, Abeta(More)
Development of therapeutics for genetically complex neurodegenerative diseases such as sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has largely been hampered by lack of relevant disease models. Reprogramming of sporadic ALS patients' fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and differentiation into affected neurons that show a disease(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that amyloid protein aggregation is pathogenic in many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms by which protein aggregation mediates cellular dysfunction and overt cell death are unknown. Recent reports have focused on the potential role of amyloid oligomers or protofibrils as a neurotoxic form of(More)
Tissue plasminogen (plgn) activator (tPA) modulates neuronal death in models of stroke, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Amyloid-beta (Abeta) appears central to Alzheimer's disease and is neurotoxic to neurons in vitro. Here, we evaluate tPA effects on Abeta toxicity. We report that tPA alone had no effect on Abeta toxicity. However, in combination(More)
To gain a molecular understanding of neuronal responses to amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta), we have analyzed the effects of Abeta treatment on neuronal gene expression in vitro by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with Abeta1-40 results in a widespread apoptotic neuronal death.(More)
In humans, sexual differentiation of the external genitalia is established at 7-12 weeks post conception (wpc). During this period, maintaining the appropriate intrauterine hormone environment is critical. In contrast to other species, this regulation extends to the human fetal adrenal cortex, as evidenced by the virilization that is associated with various(More)
Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neurodegeneration. The principal component of amyloid plaques is the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). Accumulating evidence indicates that Abeta may play a causal role in Alzheimer's disease. In this report, we demonstrate(More)
Reactive astrogliosis is the gliotic response to brain injury with activated astrocytes and microglia being the major effector cells. These cells secrete inflammatory cytokines, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors that influence extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In astrocytes, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is(More)