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In 2008, a group of uninsured low-income adults in Oregon was selected by lottery to be given the chance to apply for Medicaid. This lottery provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of expanding access to public health insurance on the health care use, financial strain, and health of low-income adults using a randomized controlled design. In the year(More)
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Many observational studies have estimated a strong effect of obesity on mortality. In this paper, we explicitly define the causal question that is asked by these studies and discuss the problems associated with it. We argue that observational studies of obesity and mortality violate the condition of consistency of counterfactual (potential) outcomes, a(More)
In 2008, Oregon initiated a limited expansion of a Medicaid program for uninsured, low-income adults, drawing names from a waiting list by lottery. This lottery created a rare opportunity to study the effects of Medicaid coverage by using a randomized controlled design. By using the randomization provided by the lottery and emergency-department records from(More)
Estimating the population risk of disease under hypothetical interventions--such as the population risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) were everyone to quit smoking and start exercising or to start exercising if diagnosed with diabetes--may not be possible using standard analytic techniques. The parametric g-formula, which appropriately adjusts for(More)
The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a major expansion of Medicaid to low-income adults in 2014. This paper describes the Oregon Health Study, a randomized controlled trial that will be able to shed some light on the likely effects of such expansions. In 2008, Oregon randomly drew names from a waiting list for its(More)
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