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Stimulation of protective immune responses against intracellular pathogens is difficult to achieve using non-replicating vaccines. BALB/c mice immunized by intramuscular injection with killed Francisella tularensis (live vaccine strain) adjuvanted with preformed immune stimulating complexes admixed with CpG, were protected when systemically challenged with(More)
Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) produces two colony types when grown on solid media, often referred to as blue variants (BV) and grey variants (GV). Whereas blue variant bacteria possessed a lipopolysaccharide O-side chain, grey variant bacteria lacked O-side chains. Grey variant bacteria appeared in stationary phase bacterial cultures and(More)
Reactive nitrogen is critical for the clearance of Francisella tularensis infections. Here we assess the role of nitric oxide in control of intracellular infections in two murine macrophage cell lines of different provenance: the alveolar macrophage cell line, MH-S, and the widely used peritoneal macrophage cell line, J774A.1. Cells were infected with the(More)
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