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Emotions, stress, hunger, and circadian rhythms all promote wakefulness and behavioral arousal. Little is known about the pathways mediating these influences, but the orexin-producing neurons of the hypothalamus may play an essential role. These cells heavily innervate many wake-promoting brain regions, and mice lacking the orexin neurons have narcolepsy(More)
Narcolepsy is caused by a lack of orexin (hypocretin), but the physiologic process that underlies the sleepiness of narcolepsy is unknown. Using orexin knock-out (KO) mice as a model of narcolepsy, we critically tested the three leading hypotheses: poor circadian control of sleep and wakefulness, inadequate activation of arousal regions, or abnormal sleep(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE People with narcolepsy and mice lacking orexin/hypocretin have disrupted sleep/wake behavior and reduced physical activity. Our objective was to identify physiologic mechanisms through which orexin deficiency reduces locomotor activity. DESIGN We examined spontaneous wheel running activity and its relationship to sleep/wake behavior in(More)
Molecular and genetic studies in model organisms have recently revealed a dynamic interplay between immunity and ageing mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, inhibition of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway prolongs lifespan, and mutations in the insulin receptor substrate Chico extend the survival of mutant flies(More)
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