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Two studies of assault victims examined the roles of (a) disorganized trauma memories in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (b) peritraumatic cognitive processing in the development of problematic memories and PTSD, and (c) ongoing dissociation and negative appraisals of memories in maintaining symptomatology. In the cross-sectional(More)
Among the adverse mental health consequences of childhood trauma is the risk related to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Other risk factors for PTSD. including parental trauma exposure and parental PTSD, can also contribute to the experience of child trauma. We examined associations between childhood trauma and PTSD in(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously reported higher and more variable salivary morning cortisol in 13-year-old adolescents whose mothers were depressed in the postnatal period, compared with control group adolescents whose mothers did not develop postnatal depression (PND). This observation suggested a biological mechanism by which intrafamilial risk for(More)
Memory deficits are implicated in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intentional recall of trauma memories is frequently disorganised or incomplete, whilst involuntary memory fragments are easily triggered by perceptual cues. Ehlers and Clark (Behaviour Research and Therapy 38 (2000) 319-345) propose that a predominance of data-driven(More)
Recent studies have shown that rumination is a powerful predictor of persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, to date, the mechanisms by which rumination maintains PTSD symptoms are little understood. Two studies of assault survivors, a cross-sectional (N = 81) and a 6-month prospective longitudinal study (N = 73), examined several facets(More)
Intrusive reexperiencing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to perceptual priming for trauma-related material. A prospective longitudinal study (N = 69) investigated perceptual priming for trauma-related, general threat, and neutral words in assault survivors with and without PTSD, using a new version of the word-stem completion task.(More)
BACKGROUND Animal research shows that early adverse experience results in altered glucocorticoid levels in adulthood, either raised basal levels or accentuated responses to stress. If a similar phenomenon operates in humans, this suggests a biological mechanism whereby early adversity might transmit risk for major depression, glucocorticoid elevations being(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate cortisol suppression following 0.5 mg of dexamethasone (DEX) in trauma survivors (N=52) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), both, or neither disorder, and in subjects never exposed to trauma (N=10), in order to examine interactions between diagnosis and trauma history on cortisol negative(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. METHOD This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702 mothers(More)
BACKGROUND Because alterations in cortisol negative feedback inhibition associated with aging are generally opposite of those observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we examined the cortisol and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) response to dexamethasone (DEX) in older trauma survivors. METHODS Twenty-three Holocaust survivors (9 men, 14 women), 27(More)