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Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for processing of simple lesions in DNA, including single-strand breaks, base damage, and base loss. The scaffold protein XRCC1, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase IIIalpha play pivotal roles in BER. Although all these enzymes are essential for development, their cellular levels must be tightly regulated(More)
The repair of oxidative base lesions in DNA is a coordinated chain of reactions that includes removal of the damaged base, incision of the phosphodiester backbone at the abasic sugar residue, incorporation of an undamaged nucleotide and sealing of the DNA strand break. Although removal of a damaged base in mammalian cells is initiated primarily by a(More)
Repair of both normal and reduced AP sites is activated by AP endonuclease, which recognizes and cleaves a phosphodiester bond 5' to the AP site. For a short period of time an incised AP site is occupied by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and then DNA polymerase beta adds one nucleotide into the repair gap and simultaneously removes the 5'-sugar phosphate.(More)
PURPOSE UVA radiation (315-400 nm) contributes to skin aging and carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to consider the mechanisms that underlie UVA-induced cellular damage, how this damage may be prevented or repaired and the signal transduction processes that are elicited in response to it. RESULTS Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is(More)
X-ray repair cross-complementing protein-1 (XRCC1)-deficient cells are sensitive to DNA damaging agents and have delayed processing of DNA base lesions. In support of its role in base excision repair, it was found that XRCC1 forms a tight complex with DNA ligase IIIalpha and also interacts with DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and other base excision repair(More)
Base excision repair (BER), a major pathway for the removal of simple lesions in DNA, requires the co-ordinated action of several repair and ancillary proteins, the impairment of which can lead to genetic instability. We here address the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in BER. Using an in vitro cross-linking assay, we reveal that PARP-1 is(More)
Base excision repair is a major pathway for the removal of simple lesions in DNA including base damage and base loss (abasic site). Base excision repair requires the coordinated action of several repair and ancillary proteins, the impairment of which can lead to genetic instability. Using a protein-DNA cross-linking assay during repair in human whole cell(More)
The dual function mammalian DNA repair enzyme, polynucleotide kinase (PNK), facilitates strand break repair through catalysis of 5'-hydroxyl phosphorylation and 3'-phosphate dephosphorylation. We have examined the relative activities of the kinase and phosphatase functions of PNK using a novel assay, which allows the simultaneous characterization of both(More)
Human exposure to heavy metals is of increasing concern due to their well-documented toxicological and carcinogenic effects and rising environmental levels through industrial processes and pollution. It has been widely reported that such metals can be genotoxic by several modes of action including generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of DNA(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear protein with a high affinity for single- and double-strand DNA breaks. Its binding to strand breaks promotes catalysis of the covalent modification of nuclear proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) synthesised from NAD(+). PARP-1-knockout cells are extremely sensitive to alkylating agents, suggesting the(More)