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Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes. Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products. Recently, commercial repellent products containing plant-based(More)
Mosquitoes, which evade contact with long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, by feeding outdoors or upon animals, are primary malaria vectors in many tropical countries. They can also dominate residual transmission where high coverage of these front-line vector control measures is achieved. Complementary strategies, which extend(More)
International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control(More)
Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from(More)
Evidence-informed health policy making is reliant on systematic access to, and appraisal of, the best available research evidence. This review suggests a strategy to improve the speed at which evidence is gathered on new vector control tools (VCTs) using a framework based on measurements of the vectorial capacity of an insect population to transmit disease.(More)
BACKGROUND Disease transmitting mosquitoes locate humans and other blood hosts by identifying their characteristic odor profiles. Using their olfactory organs, the mosquitoes detect compounds present in human breath, sweat and skins, and use these as cues to locate and obtain blood from the humans. These odor compounds can be synthesized in vitro, then(More)
The efficacy of repellents against Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in Bolivia, was evaluated. This mosquito has a peak in biting activity early in the evening. Three natural repellents (1 eucalyptus based, 1 neem based, and 1 containing several repellent essential oils) were tested in comparison with 15% deet in human landing catches in Bolivia.(More)
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are currently the preferred methods of malaria vector control. In many cases, these methods are used together in the same households, especially to suppress transmission in holoendemic and hyperendemic scenarios. Though widespread, there has been limited evidence suggesting that such(More)
Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly(More)
B ite avoidance measures are commonly recommended to international travelers to help reduce the risk of various arthropod-borne diseases. A key strategy is the use of repellents applied topically to skin or clothing which are considered in the first part of this review. Also advised are a variety of methods that employ the use of insecticides and physical(More)