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Overdiagnosis, and thus overtreatment, are inevitable consequences of most screening programmes; identification of ways of minimising the impact of overdiagnosis demands new prospective research, in particular the need to separate clinically relevant lesions that require active treatment from those that can be safely left alone or monitored and only need(More)
LBA5000 Background: Bony metastatic CRPC has a poor prognosis and high morbidity. TRAPEZE is a factorial RCT using three agents, D, ZA, and Sr89. All have palliative benefits and are used in bony metastatic CRPC to control bone symptoms and (for D) to prolong survival. ZA was approved on the basis of reducing skeletal related events (SRE). Sr89 was approved(More)
BACKGROUND Epithelial cell adhesion molecule is overexpressed in bladder tumours and released from bladder cancer cells in vitro. We test the hypotheses that urinary EpCAM could act as a biomarker for primary bladder cancer detection and risk stratification. METHODS Epithelial cell adhesion molecule was measured by ELISA in urine from 607 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Better biomarkers must be found to develop clinically useful urine tests for bladder cancer. Proteomics can be used to identify the proteins released by cancer cell lines and generate candidate markers for developing such tests. METHODS We used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins released into culture media by eight bladder cancer cell(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common complication of chronic liver disease (CLD), and is conventionally diagnosed by radiological means. We aimed to build a statistical model that could determine the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in individual patients with CLD using objective measures, particularly serological tumor markers. METHODS A total(More)
BACKGROUND Renal tumors with sarcomatoid changes are aggressive malignancies with poor prognosis. Immunotherapy and chemotherapy have provided little benefit. The efficacy of treatments targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway is unclear because of the lack of clinical trial data and the small number of published series. PATIENTS AND(More)
We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence length.(More)
BACKGROUND Management of metastatic castration refractory prostate cancer (CRPC) is rapidly evolving. Rationalisation of treatment requires identification of those patients more likely to benefit from a particular therapy. We reviewed the outcome of patients treated with abiraterone at our Institution to describe factors predictive for response. PATIENTS(More)
275 Background: As the prevalence of bladder cancer increases amongst the elderly, nearly 1 in 3 muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) cases are in patients aged >80 years (Taylor JA, III, Kuchel GA. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2009; 6(3):135-1440). However, radical cystectomy remains as the gold standard treatment for MIBC (Yafi FA, Kassouf W. Can Urol Assoc J(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding zoledronic acid or strontium-89 to standard docetaxel chemotherapy for patients with castrate-refractory prostate cancer (CRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on resource use and quality of life for 707 patients collected prospectively in the TRAPEZE 2 × 2 factorial randomised trial (ISRCTN 12808747) were(More)