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BACKGROUND Epithelial cell adhesion molecule is overexpressed in bladder tumours and released from bladder cancer cells in vitro. We test the hypotheses that urinary EpCAM could act as a biomarker for primary bladder cancer detection and risk stratification. METHODS Epithelial cell adhesion molecule was measured by ELISA in urine from 607 patients with(More)
We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence length.(More)
BACKGROUND Better biomarkers must be found to develop clinically useful urine tests for bladder cancer. Proteomics can be used to identify the proteins released by cancer cell lines and generate candidate markers for developing such tests. METHODS We used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins released into culture media by eight bladder cancer cell(More)
Overdiagnosis, and thus overtreatment, are inevitable consequences of most screening programmes; identification of ways of minimising the impact of overdiagnosis demands new prospective research, in particular the need to separate clinically relevant lesions that require active treatment from those that can be safely left alone or monitored and only need(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common complication of chronic liver disease (CLD), and is conventionally diagnosed by radiological means. We aimed to build a statistical model that could determine the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in individual patients with CLD using objective measures, particularly serological tumor markers. METHODS A total(More)
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BACKGROUND Mass spectroscopy analysis suggested low serum albumin and high immunoglobulin free light chain (sFLC) levels may have diagnostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aims were to apply quantitative assays to confirm these observations, determine their diagnostic utility, and investigate the mechanisms involved. METHODS Albumin, sFLC,(More)
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