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For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal(More)
Disruption of function of left, but not right, lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) with low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increased choices of immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. rTMS did not change choices involving only delayed rewards or valuation judgments of immediate and delayed rewards, providing causal(More)
BACKGROUND While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression is effective, cognitive effects limit its use. Reducing the width of the electrical pulse and using the right unilateral electrode placement may decrease adverse cognitive effects, while preserving efficacy. METHODS In a double-masked study, we randomly assigned 90 depressed patients to(More)
New neurons are generated in the adult hippocampus of many species including rodents, monkeys, and humans. Conditions associated with major depression, such as social stress, suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents and primates. In contrast, all classes of antidepressants stimulate neuronal generation, and the behavioral effects of these medications(More)
Here we review the usefulness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in modulating cortical networks in ways that might produce performance enhancements in healthy human subjects. To date over sixty studies have reported significant improvements in speed and accuracy in a variety of tasks involving perceptual, motor, and executive processing. Two basic(More)
CONTEXT Postmortem studies have found evidence of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits in fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in unmedicated patients have reported glutamine or glutamate-glutamine (Glx) elevations in this region. Abnormalities in these transmitters(More)
There is evidence that motor and premotor cortex are hyperexcitable in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS). We tested whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could normalize overactive motor cortical regions and thereby improve symptoms. Subjects with OCD or TS were treated with active rTMS to(More)
BACKGROUND Several lines of evidence suggest that central cortical inhibitory mechanisms, especially associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, may play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a useful tool for investigating central cortical inhibitory mechanisms associated with(More)
In open trials, 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the supplementary motor area (SMA) improved symptoms and normalized cortical hyper-excitability of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we present the results of a randomized sham-controlled double-blind study. Medication-resistant OCD patients (n=21) were(More)
Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel means of performing convulsive therapy using rapidly alternating strong magnetic fields. MST offers greater control of intracerebral current intensity than is possible with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). These features may result in a superior cognitive side effect profile for MST, while possibly retaining the(More)