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Disruption of function of left, but not right, lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) with low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increased choices of immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. rTMS did not change choices involving only delayed rewards or valuation judgments of immediate and delayed rewards, providing causal(More)
BACKGROUND Controversy persists about the use of right unilateral (RUL) and bilateral (BL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). While RUL ECT results in less severe short-term and long-term cognitive effects, there is concern that it is less efficacious than BL ECT. METHODS In a double-blind study, 80 depressed patients were randomized to RULECT, with(More)
Testing the therapeutic potential of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in controlled trials requires a valid sham condition. Sham TMS is typically administered by tilting the coil 45--90 degrees off the scalp, with one or two wings of the coil touching the scalp. Lack of cortical effects has not been verified. We compared sham manipulations in their(More)
For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal(More)
The rhesus monkey is widely used as an experimental animal model in the study of brain function and disease. While previous quantitative studies have provided knowledge of regional numbers, little is known of the total neocortical neuron and glial cell numbers in this species. The aim of this study is to establish quantitative norms. We use the optical(More)
BACKGROUND While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression is effective, cognitive effects limit its use. Reducing the width of the electrical pulse and using the right unilateral electrode placement may decrease adverse cognitive effects, while preserving efficacy. METHODS In a double-masked study, we randomly assigned 90 depressed patients to(More)
E lectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plays an important role in the treatment of severely depressed patients, especially those who do not respond to antidepressant medications. However, its cognitive adverse effects restrict its use. The dosage of the electrical stimulus and the anatomic placement of stimulating electrodes are critical in determining the(More)
Although improvements in performance due to TMS have been demonstrated with some cognitive tasks, performance improvement has not previously been demonstrated with working memory tasks. In the present study, a delayed match-to-sample task was used in which repetitive TMS (rTMS) at 1, 5, or 20 Hz was applied to either left dorsolateral prefrontal or midline(More)
CONTEXT Postmortem studies have found evidence of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits in fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in unmedicated patients have reported glutamine or glutamate-glutamine (Glx) elevations in this region. Abnormalities in these transmitters(More)