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BACKGROUND Controversy persists about the use of right unilateral (RUL) and bilateral (BL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). While RUL ECT results in less severe short-term and long-term cognitive effects, there is concern that it is less efficacious than BL ECT. METHODS In a double-blind study, 80 depressed patients were randomized to RULECT, with(More)
BACKGROUND While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression is effective, cognitive effects limit its use. Reducing the width of the electrical pulse and using the right unilateral electrode placement may decrease adverse cognitive effects, while preserving efficacy. METHODS In a double-masked study, we randomly assigned 90 depressed patients to(More)
For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal(More)
Testing the therapeutic potential of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in controlled trials requires a valid sham condition. Sham TMS is typically administered by tilting the coil 45--90 degrees off the scalp, with one or two wings of the coil touching the scalp. Lack of cortical effects has not been verified. We compared sham manipulations in their(More)
Although improvements in performance due to TMS have been demonstrated with some cognitive tasks, performance improvement has not previously been demonstrated with working memory tasks. In the present study, a delayed match-to-sample task was used in which repetitive TMS (rTMS) at 1, 5, or 20 Hz was applied to either left dorsolateral prefrontal or midline(More)
The rhesus monkey is widely used as an experimental animal model in the study of brain function and disease. While previous quantitative studies have provided knowledge of regional numbers, little is known of the total neocortical neuron and glial cell numbers in this species. The aim of this study is to establish quantitative norms. We use the optical(More)
E lectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plays an important role in the treatment of severely depressed patients, especially those who do not respond to antidepressant medications. However, its cognitive adverse effects restrict its use. The dosage of the electrical stimulus and the anatomic placement of stimulating electrodes are critical in determining the(More)
BACKGROUND Several lines of evidence suggest that central cortical inhibitory mechanisms, especially associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, may play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a useful tool for investigating central cortical inhibitory mechanisms associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Retrograde amnesia is the most persistent cognitive adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); however, it is not known whether ECT has differential effects on autobiographical vs impersonal memories. This study examined the short- and long-term effects of differing forms of ECT on memory of personal and impersonal (public) events. (More)