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This study compared the subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate with placebo in healthy volunteers. Sixteen non-dependent light drug users participated in six experimental sessions, receiving placebo, atomoxetine (20, 45 and 90 mg) and methylphenidate (20 and 40 mg) using a double-blind, Latin square design.(More)
Delay discounting (DD), a measure of impulsivity, describes the rate at which rewards lose value as the delay to their receipt increases. Greater discounting has been associated with cigarette smoking and various other types of drug abuse in recent research. The present study examined whether DD predicts treatment outcome among cigarette smokers. More(More)
Higher rates of delay discounting have been consistently noted in substance abusers compared to non-drug-using matched controls. Additional data from some studies comparing discounting rates in current versus former substance abusers suggest that discounting rates may be adaptable and that drug abstinence may be associated with reductions in discounting.(More)
Delay discounting (DD) describes the rate at which reinforcers lose value as the temporal delay to their receipt increases. Steeper discounting has been positively associated with vulnerability to substance use disorders, including cocaine use disorders. In the present study, we examined whether DD of hypothetical monetary reinforcers is associated with the(More)
Extensive scientific evidence indicates that reinforcement plays an important role in the genesis, maintenance, and recovery from substance use disorders. In this chapter, we review recent clinical research from laboratory, clinic, and naturalistic settings examining the role of reinforcement in substance use disorders. Well-controlled human laboratory(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the contributions of community reinforcement therapy to outcome in the community reinforcement approach (CRA) + vouchers outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. METHODS One hundred cocaine-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment conditions: CRA + vouchers or vouchers only. All patients earned incentives(More)
The present study was an experimental test of efficacy of a brief education intervention for increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge among cocaine-dependent outpatients. Participants were randomly assigned to an HIV/AIDS education intervention (experimental condition) or a sham intervention (control condition). Control participants were subsequently crossed over to(More)
Fifty-eight smokers received abstinence-contingent monetary payments for 1 (n=15) or 14 (n=3) days. Those who received contingent payments for 14 days also received 0, 1, or 8 experimenter-delivered cigarette puffs on 5 evenings. The relative reinforcing effects of smoking were assessed in a 3-hr session on the final study day, when participants made 20(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid-dependent (OD) women tend to engage in unprotected sex with high-risk partners, placing themselves at elevated risk for sexually transmitted HIV infection. This behavior generally persists after completion of interventions that increase sexual HIV risk reduction knowledge and skills, suggesting that decision-making biases may influence HIV(More)
The present study was conducted to examine several different methods and cutpoints for determining smoking status in pregnant and recently postpartum women. Self-reported smoking status, urine cotinine levels determined by gas chromatography (GC) and by enzyme immunoassay testing (EMIT), and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels were assessed at 28 weeks(More)