Sarah H. Heil

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BACKGROUND Methadone, a full mu-opioid agonist, is the recommended treatment for opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, prenatal exposure to methadone is associated with a neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) characterized by central nervous system hyperirritability and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which often requires medication and extended(More)
Delay discounting (DD), a measure of impulsivity, describes the rate at which rewards lose value as the delay to their receipt increases. Greater discounting has been associated with cigarette smoking and various other types of drug abuse in recent research. The present study examined whether DD predicts treatment outcome among cigarette smokers. More(More)
AIMS This study examined whether voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) contingent upon smoking abstinence during pregnancy is an effective method for decreasing maternal smoking during pregnancy and improving fetal growth. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A two-condition, parallel-groups, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a(More)
Higher rates of delay discounting have been consistently noted in substance abusers compared to non-drug-using matched controls. Additional data from some studies comparing discounting rates in current versus former substance abusers suggest that discounting rates may be adaptable and that drug abstinence may be associated with reductions in discounting.(More)
We report results from a pilot study examining the use of vouchers redeemable for retail items as incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. Of 100 study-eligible women who were still smoking upon entering prenatal care, 58 were recruited from university-based and community obstetric practices to participate in a smoking cessation(More)
AIMS To systematically investigate the effectiveness of voucher-based reinforcement therapy for the treatment of substance use disorders. METHODS Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for studies published between January 1991 and March 2004 that utilized voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) or related monetary-based incentives(More)
Extensive scientific evidence indicates that reinforcement plays an important role in the genesis, maintenance, and recovery from substance use disorders. In this chapter, we review recent clinical research from laboratory, clinic, and naturalistic settings examining the role of reinforcement in substance use disorders. Well-controlled human laboratory(More)
OBJECTIVE Any smoking during the initial 2 weeks of attempting to quit predicts poor short- and longer-term outcomes in the general population of cigarette smokers. The present study examined whether that rule applies to pregnant women. METHODS Data were obtained from 129 women participating in clinical trials on smoking-cessation examining the efficacy(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid-dependent (OD) women tend to engage in unprotected sex with high-risk partners, placing themselves at elevated risk for sexually transmitted HIV infection. This behavior generally persists after completion of interventions that increase sexual HIV risk reduction knowledge and skills, suggesting that decision-making biases may influence HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the U.S., causing serious immediate and longer-term adverse effects for mothers and offspring. In this report we provide a narrative review of research on the use of financial incentives to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy, an(More)