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AIMS To systematically investigate the effectiveness of voucher-based reinforcement therapy for the treatment of substance use disorders. METHODS Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for studies published between January 1991 and March 2004 that utilized voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) or related monetary-based incentives(More)
BACKGROUND Methadone, a full mu-opioid agonist, is the recommended treatment for opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, prenatal exposure to methadone is associated with a neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) characterized by central nervous system hyperirritability and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which often requires medication and extended(More)
This study compared the subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate with placebo in healthy volunteers. Sixteen non-dependent light drug users participated in six experimental sessions, receiving placebo, atomoxetine (20, 45 and 90 mg) and methylphenidate (20 and 40 mg) using a double-blind, Latin square design.(More)
Delay discounting (DD), a measure of impulsivity, describes the rate at which rewards lose value as the delay to their receipt increases. Greater discounting has been associated with cigarette smoking and various other types of drug abuse in recent research. The present study examined whether DD predicts treatment outcome among cigarette smokers. More(More)
OBJECTIVE Maternal smoking has been associated with a reduction in newborn birth weight. We sought to estimate how the pattern of maternal smoking throughout pregnancy influences newborn size. METHODS One hundred sixty pregnant smoking women were enrolled in a prospective study. We collected data on maternal age, education, prepregnancy body mass index,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the contributions of community reinforcement therapy to outcome in the community reinforcement approach (CRA) + vouchers outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. METHODS One hundred cocaine-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment conditions: CRA + vouchers or vouchers only. All patients earned incentives(More)
OBJECTIVE Concurrent dependence on alcohol is common among those seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. More information is needed about differences between those with and without concurrent alcohol dependence, including possible special treatment needs or outcome differences. METHOD Data were obtained from 302 adults (70% men) enrolled in outpatient(More)
We report results from a pilot study examining the use of vouchers redeemable for retail items as incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. Of 100 study-eligible women who were still smoking upon entering prenatal care, 58 were recruited from university-based and community obstetric practices to participate in a smoking cessation(More)
AIMS This study examined whether voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) contingent upon smoking abstinence during pregnancy is an effective method for decreasing maternal smoking during pregnancy and improving fetal growth. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A two-condition, parallel-groups, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a(More)
OBJECTIVE Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the U.S., causing serious immediate and longer-term adverse effects for mothers and offspring. In this report we provide a narrative review of research on the use of financial incentives to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy, an(More)