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Almost a quarter of a century ago, interleukin-6 (IL-6) was discovered as an inflammatory cytokine involved in B cell differentiation. Today, IL-6 is recognized to be a highly versatile cytokine, with pleiotropic actions not only in immune cells, but also in other cell types, such as cells of the central nervous system (CNS). The first evidence implicating(More)
Probably every cellular process is governed by protein-protein interaction (PPIs), which are often highly dynamic in nature being modulated by in- or external stimuli. Here we present KISS, for KInase Substrate Sensor, a mammalian two-hybrid approach designed to map intracellular PPIs and some of the dynamic features they exhibit. Benchmarking experiments(More)
Evidence accumulates for a key role of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptors in the many homeostatic and neuroprotective functions of astrocytes, including glycogen metabolism, regulation of immune responses, release of neurotrophic factors, and the astrogliosis that occurs in response to neuronal injury. A dysregulation of the astrocytic(More)
The NF-κB signaling pathway orchestrates many of the intricate aspects of neuroinflammation. Astrocytic β2-adrenergic receptors have emerged as potential regulators in central nervous system inflammation and are potential targets for pharmacological modulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crosstalk between astrocytic β2-adrenergic receptors(More)
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is best known for its role in the regulation of lactation. Recent evidence furthermore indicates PRL is required for normal reproduction in rodents. Here, we report on the insertion of two transposon-like DNA sequences in the human prolactin gene, which together function as an alternative promoter directing(More)
To address the role of different intracellular signals in prolactin (PRL) expression in leukocytes, we have investigated the effects of chlorophenylthio-cAMP (cptcAMP), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin on the activation of the upstream PRL promoter in several leukemic cell lines. All three stimulators, alone or in synergism with each other,(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment and is often the result of overexpression of the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as a consequence of hyperactivation of NFkappaB, AP1 and Nrf2 transcription factors. In addition to effluxing chemotherapeutic drugs, P-gp also plays a specific role in blocking(More)
BACKGROUND Compound A (CpdA) is a dissociating non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand which has anti-inflammatory properties exerted by down-modulating proinflammatory gene expression. By favouring GR monomer formation, CpdA does not enhance glucocorticoid (GC) response element-driven gene expression, resulting in a reduced side effect profile as(More)
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is one of the central mediators of inflammatory gene expression. Several posttranslational modifications of NF-kappaB, regulating its transactivation ability, have been described. Especially phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 has been investigated in depth and several commercial(More)
Besides its pivotal role in reproduction, the polypeptide hormone prolactin (PRL) has immunomodulatory properties. Whereas the bulk of circulating PRL is produced by the pituitary, PRL is also produced by the decidua, the myometrium, the mammary gland and leukocytes. Extrapituitary PRL expression is regulated differently from that in the pituitary, due to(More)