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Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is the most conserved transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a homeostatic response that preserves proteostasis. Intriguingly, via its endoribonuclease activity, IRE1 produces either adaptive or death signals. This occurs through both unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA and regulated IRE1-dependent decay of(More)
Almost a quarter of a century ago, interleukin-6 (IL-6) was discovered as an inflammatory cytokine involved in B cell differentiation. Today, IL-6 is recognized to be a highly versatile cytokine, with pleiotropic actions not only in immune cells, but also in other cell types, such as cells of the central nervous system (CNS). The first evidence implicating(More)
It has been known for several decades that cyclic AMP (cAMP), a prototypical second messenger, transducing the action of a variety of G-protein-coupled receptor ligands, has potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions. These actions have been attributed in part to the ability of cAMP-induced signals to interfere with the function of the(More)
Astrocytes are critical players in the innate immune response of the central nervous system. Upon encountering proinflammatory stimuli, astrocytes produce a plethora of inflammatory mediators. Here, we have investigated how beta(2)-adrenergic receptor activation modulates proinflammatory gene expression in astrocytes. We have observed that treatment of(More)
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is best known for its role in the regulation of lactation. Recent evidence furthermore indicates PRL is required for normal reproduction in rodents. Here, we report on the insertion of two transposon-like DNA sequences in the human prolactin gene, which together function as an alternative promoter directing(More)
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is also produced extrapituitarily by cells of the immune system. In leukocytes PRL expression is directed by an alternative promoter, located 5800 bp upstream of the pituitary promoter. We have shown here that this alternative promoter is activated in myeloid leukemic cells by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) selectively trigger cell death in the multiple myeloma cell line MM1S which express NR3C1/Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) protein, but fail to kill MM1R cells which lack GR protein. Given recent demonstrations of altered microRNA profiles in a diverse range of haematological malignancies and drug resistance, we characterized GC inducible(More)
Probably every cellular process is governed by protein-protein interaction (PPIs), which are often highly dynamic in nature being modulated by in- or external stimuli. Here we present KISS, for KInase Substrate Sensor, a mammalian two-hybrid approach designed to map intracellular PPIs and some of the dynamic features they exhibit. Benchmarking experiments(More)
Controlled expression of cytokine genes is an essential component of an immune response and is crucial for homeostasis. In order to generate an appropriate response to an infectious condition, the type of cytokine, as well as the cell type, dose range and the kinetics of its expression are of critical importance. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family(More)
Uncontrolled expression of IL-6 in the central nervous system is associated with neurodegenerative pathology and glioma development. Astrocytes are the predominant source of IL-6 in the central nervous system, and they are characteristically susceptible to synergistic IL-6 expression. Combined β-adrenergic and TNF-receptor triggering induces synergistic(More)