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Nonviral vectors continue to be attractive alternatives to viruses due to their low toxicity and immunogenicity, lack of pathogenicity, and ease of pharmacologic production. However, nonviral vectors also continue to suffer from relatively low levels of gene transfer compared to viruses, thus the drive to improve these vectors continues. Many studies on(More)
We investigated trafficking of polystyrene nanoparticles (PNP; 20 and 100 nm; carboxylate, sulfate, or aldehyde-sulfate modified [negatively charged] and amidine-modified [positively charged]) across rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECM). Apical-to-basolateral fluxes of nanoparticles were estimated as functions of apical PNP concentration ([PNP])(More)
We investigated the role of the actin-based myosin motor, myosin 5c (Myo5c) in vesicle transport in exocrine secretion. Lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGAC) are the major source for the regulated secretion of proteins from the lacrimal gland into the tear film. Confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that Myo5c was associated with(More)
The mechanochemical motor proteins of the kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein families play important roles in microtubule-based intracellular motility. Although movement and distribution of organelles like secretory granules, vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum, and chromosomes depend on the activity of these motor proteins, little is known about the regulation of(More)
The lacrimal gland is responsible for tear production, and a major protein found in tears is secretory component (SC), the proteolytically cleaved fragment of the extracellular domain of the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), which is the receptor mediating the basal-to-apical transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulins across epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent(More)
Despite observations that the lacrimal gland has been identified as the principal source of dimeric immunoglobulin A (dIgA) in tears, the mechanism used by lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGACs) to transcytose dIgA produced by interstitial plasma cells is not well-characterized. This study identifies a transcytotic pathway in LGACs regulated by Rab11a for(More)
The proton-coupled intestinal dipeptide transporter, PepT1, has 707 amino acids, 12 putative transmembrane domains (TMD), and is of importance in the transport of nutritional di- and tripeptides and structurally related drugs, such as penicillins and cephalosporins. By using a combination of molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we have(More)
OBJECTIVE The diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in routine practice is largely a clinical one and requires a high index of suspicion by the treating physician. This great dependence on clinical judgment frequently leads to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Tear protein profiles have been proposed as simple and reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis of(More)
Evidence suggests that lacrimal and salivary epithelial cells constitutively expose potentially pathogenic autoantigens, but that active regulatory networks normally suppress pathological autoimmune responses . Events that potentially disrupt the regulatory networks include increased exposure of constitutive autoantigens and induced exposure of previously(More)
RATIONALE Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium. OBJECTIVES Investigate ZnO NP-induced injury to alveolar epithelium by exposing primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECMs) to(More)