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The proton-coupled intestinal dipeptide transporter, PepT1, has 707 amino acids, 12 putative transmembrane domains (TMD), and is of importance in the transport of nutritional di- and tripeptides and structurally related drugs, such as penicillins and cephalosporins. By using a combination of molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we have(More)
Denaturation of DNA photolyase (deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase, EC 4.1.99.3) from Escherichia coli with guanidine hydrochloride or acidification to pH 2 released, in addition to FAD, a chromophore with the spectral and chromatographic properties of a reduced pterin. Treatment of the enzyme with iodine prior to acidification converted the chromophore to a(More)
Nonviral vectors continue to be attractive alternatives to viruses due to their low toxicity and immunogenicity, lack of pathogenicity, and ease of pharmacologic production. However, nonviral vectors also continue to suffer from relatively low levels of gene transfer compared to viruses, thus the drive to improve these vectors continues. Many studies on(More)
We investigated trafficking of polystyrene nanoparticles (PNP; 20 and 100 nm; carboxylate, sulfate, or aldehyde-sulfate modified [negatively charged] and amidine-modified [positively charged]) across rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECM). Apical-to-basolateral fluxes of nanoparticles were estimated as functions of apical PNP concentration ([PNP])(More)
To understand the regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatocytes, we have used two specific inhibitors of serine-threonine protein phosphatases (PP), microcystin (MCYST) and okadaic acid (OKA) as probes to alter protein phosphorylation in hepatocytes. We have then examined the impact of these changes on the specific binding and uptake of(More)
We investigated the role of the actin-based myosin motor, myosin 5c (Myo5c) in vesicle transport in exocrine secretion. Lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGAC) are the major source for the regulated secretion of proteins from the lacrimal gland into the tear film. Confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that Myo5c was associated with(More)
This study reports a general method of labeling enveloped viruses with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for use in single virus trafficking studies. Retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), could be successfully tagged with QDs through the membrane incorporation of a short acceptor peptide (AP) that is susceptible to site-specific(More)
The lacrimal gland is responsible for tear production, and a major protein found in tears is secretory component (SC), the proteolytically cleaved fragment of the extracellular domain of the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), which is the receptor mediating the basal-to-apical transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulins across epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent(More)
The mechanochemical motor proteins of the kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein families play important roles in microtubule-based intracellular motility. Although movement and distribution of organelles like secretory granules, vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum, and chromosomes depend on the activity of these motor proteins, little is known about the regulation of(More)