Sarah F Andrews

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The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pandemic demonstrated the global health threat of reassortant influenza strains. Herein, we report a detailed analysis of plasmablast and monoclonal antibody responses induced by pandemic H1N1 infection in humans. Unlike antibodies elicited by annual influenza vaccinations, most neutralizing antibodies induced by pandemic(More)
We have previously shown that broadly neutralizing antibodies reactive to the conserved stem region of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) were generated in people infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. Such antibodies are rarely seen in humans following infection or vaccination with seasonal influenza virus strains. However, the important question(More)
The important subtleties of B cell tolerance are best understood in a diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire context encoding a full spectrum of autoreactivity. To achieve this, we used mice expressing Igκ transgenes that confer varying degrees of autoreactivity within a diverse heavy chain (HC) repertoire. These transgenes, coupled with a biomarker to(More)
We have characterized a distinct, late transitional B cell subset, CD21(int) transitional 2 (T2) B cells. In contrast to early transitional B cells, CD21(int) T2 B cells exhibit augmented responses to a range of potential microenvironmental stimuli. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that this subset is an immediate precursor of both follicular mature(More)
Transitional and naïve mature peripheral B cells respond very differently to B-cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking. While transitional B cells undergo apoptosis upon BCR engagement, mature B cells survive and proliferate. This differential response correlates with the capacity of mature, but not transitional B cells to transcribe genes that promote cell(More)
The emergence and seasonal persistence of pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses in China have raised concerns about the pandemic potential of this strain, which, if realized, would have a substantial effect on global health and economies. H7N9 viruses are able to bind to human sialic acid receptors and are also able to develop resistance to neuraminidase(More)
Deregulated expression of the Myc family of transcription factors (c-, N-, and L-myc) contributes to the development of many cancers by a mechanism believed to involve the stimulation of cell proliferation and inhibition of differentiation. However, using B cell-specific c-/N-myc double-knockout mice and E(mu)-myc transgenic mice bred onto genetic(More)
The splenic B cell compartment is comprised of two major, functionally distinct, mature B cell subsets, i.e., follicular mature (FM) and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Whereas MZ B cells exhibit a robust proliferative response following stimulation with the TLR4 ligand LPS, FM B cells display markedly delayed and reduced levels of proliferation to the(More)
Influenza viruses typically cause the most severe disease in children and elderly individuals. However, H1N1 viruses disproportionately affected middle-aged adults during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Although H1N1 viruses recently acquired several mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, classic serological tests used by surveillance(More)
The signaling programs that enforce negative selection in early transitional (T1) B cells in response to BCR engagement remain poorly defined. We conducted a comprehensive comparison of BCR signaling in T1 vs follicular mature splenic B cells. T1, in contrast to follicular mature B cells, failed to express key NF-kappaB target genes in response to BCR(More)