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Sperm competition occurs when sperm from more than one male compete for fertilizations. This form of post-copulatory sexual selection is recognized as a significant and widespread force in the evolution of male reproductive biology and as a key determinant of differential male reproductive success. Despite its importance, however, detailed mechanisms of(More)
Polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as essential genes for individual fitness under conditions of natural and sexual selection. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the ultimate individual fitness trait--that of reproductive success. We used three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in seminatural(More)
Three different physiological parameters were assessed to determine their potential for serving as biomarkers to predict abnormally elevated vitellogenin (VTG) production in male and immature flounder. Whereas abnormally elevated mean VTG plasma concentrations clearly distinguished the Mersey and Dee flounder studied, the results showed no significant(More)
Polyandry and post-copulatory sexual selection provide opportunities for the evolution of female differential sperm selection. Here, we examined the influence of variation in major histocompatibility (MH) class I allelic composition upon sperm competition dynamics in Atlantic salmon. We ran in vitro fertilization competitions that mimicked the gametic(More)
BACKGROUND The use of prescription drugs to improve cognitive functioning in normal persons--neuroenhancement"--has gained recent attention from bioethicists and neuroscientists. Enthusiasts claim that the practice is widespread and increasing, and has many potential benefits; however recent evidence provides weak support for these claims. In this study we(More)
Despite evidence that variation in male-female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in(More)
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because(More)
The incidence, natural history, prognosis, and electrocardiographic characteristics of idioventricular rhythm complicating acute myocardial infarction are described. It occurred as a transient arrhythmia nearly always within 24 hours of infarction in 61 (8%) of 737 patients, and was characterized by paroxysms of between 6 and 20 beats with widened bizarre(More)