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Nasal washings were collected from 27 normal adults during 38 naturally acquired colds. The washings were exhaustively tested using tissue cultures, organ cultures and electron microscopy. Washings yielding no identifiable agent were inoculated into human volunteers, and further specimens obtained from the latter were examined by the same techniques in(More)
Widespread human modification and conversion of land has led to loss and fragmentation of natural ecosystems, altering ecological processes and causing declines in biodiversity. The potential for ecosystems to adapt to climate change will be contingent on the ability of species to move and ecological processes to operate across broad landscapes. We(More)
The extensive literature documenting the ecological effects of roads has repeatedly implicated noise as one of the causal factors. Recent studies of wildlife responses to noise have decisively identified changes in animal behaviors and spatial distributions that are caused by noise. Collectively, this research suggests that spatial extent and intensity of(More)
Keywords: Anthropogenic noise Bioacoustics GIS Noise model Noise propagation Soundscape ecology a b s t r a c t SPreAD-GIS is a tool for modeling spatial patterns of anthropogenic noise propagation in natural ecosystems. SPreAD-GIS incorporates commonly available datasets on land cover, topography, and weather conditions to calculate noise propagation(More)
Effective conservation of biological diversity on private lands will require changes in land-use policy and development practice. Conservation development (CD) is an alternative form of residential development in which homes are built on smaller lots and clustered together and the remainder of the property is permanently protected for conservation purposes.(More)
People value proximity and easy access to protected areas in urban landscapes, including state and regional parks, wildlife refuges, and open space preserves. The popularity of outdoor recreation activities such as hiking and birdwatching has more than doubled in the past 20 years, and surveys indicate that proximity to natural areas is an important factor(More)
The interaction between short-term sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure and experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was studied in thirty-two volunteers divided into two groups balanced with respect to age, antibody levels, and nasal mucus flow rates. One group was exposed to SO2 exposure at the threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 ppm during 4 hours; the other(More)
Sputum, nasal swabs, and throat swabs were obtained from 22 children aged between 5 and 15 years during 72 attacks of wheezy bronchitis. A virus, most commonly a rhinovirus, was isolated in 49% of all episodes and in 64% of 22 severe episodes requiring treatment with corticosteroids; the isolation rate was higher early in the illness than later. Virus was(More)
Four unrelated compounds active against rhinovirus were compared in tissue culture, and three of them were used in volunteers challenged with rhinovirus. The compounds were the triazino-indole SKF 40491, the substituted oxadiazole GLR9-338, the imidazo-thiazole RP L9326, and the guanidine derivative ICI 73,602. The abilities of these compounds to reduce the(More)