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Animals vary markedly in the number of parasites they harbour-most have just a few, but some have many. In this chapter, we ask why there is so much variation between individuals, how do we quantify this variation and what are the consequences of these heterogeneities for the dynamics of the host-parasite interaction? 2.1 Background Exhaustive empirical(More)
Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the(More)
More than 30 years ago, human beings looked back from the Moon to see the magnificent spectacle of Earth-rise. The technology that put us into space has since been used to assess the damage we are doing to our natural environment and is now being harnessed to monitor and predict diseases through space and time. Satellite sensor data promise the development(More)
The public health and economic consequences of Plasmodium falciparum malaria are once again regarded as priorities for global development. There has been much speculation on whether anthropogenic climate change is exacerbating the malaria problem, especially in areas of high altitude where P. falciparum transmission is limited by low temperature. The(More)
The twin concepts of zooprophylaxis and the dilution effect originated with vector-borne diseases (malaria), were driven forward by studies on Lyme borreliosis and have now developed into the mantra "biodiversity protects against disease". The basic idea is that by diluting the assemblage of transmission-competent hosts with non-competent hosts, the(More)
The estimation of two parameters in the transmission of Babesia microti by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps amongst small mammals, (1) the duration of infectivity in natural hosts and (2) the probability of transmission from an infected to a susceptible vole, is described. When B. microti was maintained by direct tick transmission, the probability of a(More)
Emerging vector-borne diseases are an important issue in global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, while many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and emergence of endemic pathogens are often considered to be distinct processes, many endemic pathogens are actually(More)
Tsetse flies are a major constraint on animal production in about 10 million km2 of Africa through their transmission of animal trypanosomiasis. Up to 25 million people are at risk from human trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness. Tsetse research has been concentrated on the factors that control the distribution and abundance of these vectors and the means(More)
Climate has a significant impact on malaria incidence and we have predicted that forecast climate changes might cause some modifications to the present global distribution of malaria close to its present boundaries. However, it is quite another matter to attribute recent resurgences of malaria in the highlands of East Africa to climate change. Analyses of(More)