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Myelination of the central nervous system requires the generation of functionally mature oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Electrically active neurons may influence OPC function and selectively instruct myelination of an active neural circuit. In this work, we use optogenetic stimulation of the premotor cortex in awake, behaving(More)
The length of larval life in the nudibranch Phestilia sibogae is determined by a chance encounter with a specific metamorphic stimulus associated with the post-larval benthic habitat. A developmental hiatus begins at the onset of larval metamorphic competence and ends at metamorphosis; aging is suspended during this hiatus. Because the duration of(More)
Scanning electron microscopy of unmanipulated erythrocytes from patients with myotonic dystrophy or Duchenne dystrophy and patients who were Duchenne carriers showed a large increase in the number of stomatocytes over the number in normal controls. No specific morhologic changes that would differentiate any of the dystrophic patients from one another were(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as a viable treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) have predominated in experimental models whereas the majority of clinical trials have used MSCs derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs), thus there is little consensus on the optimal tissue source. The(More)
Although the critical role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) allelic variation in Alzheimer's disease and in the outcome of CNS injury is now recognized, the functions of apoE in the CNS remain obscure, particularly with regard to lipid metabolism. We used density gradient ultracentrifugation to identify apoE-containing lipoproteins in human CSF. CSF apoE(More)
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of great interest because of their immunomodulatory properties. Damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS) is implicated in IBD pathophysiology and disease progression. The most commonly used model to study inflammation-induced changes to the ENS is(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), such as homing ability, multipotent differentiation capacity and secretion of soluble bioactive factors which exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, have been attributed to attenuation of autoimmune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders.(More)