Sarah E M Howie

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The resolution of acute inflammation requires bulk clearance of extravasated inflammatory cells in an ordered manner. Neutrophils undergo apoptosis and are ingested by macrophages (M psi) via a novel recognition mechanism that fails to provoke proinflammatory responses. Thereafter, the fate of inflammatory M psi themselves remains unclear. We investigated(More)
The protozoan parasite of cattle, Theileria annulata, causes a severe lymphoproliferative disease, developing initially in the draining lymph node, which is often fatal in naive animals. Infection of macrophages with T. annulata leads to an augmentation of their antigen-presenting capability in vitro and infected cells can induce proliferation of autologous(More)
In human tumourigenesis the tumour suppressor gene most commonly affected by mutation, inactivation or allele loss is p53. Loss of p53 function is associated both with failure to maintain a normal diploid status and inability to delete cells by apoptosis following DNA damage. To investigate further the role of p53 we have generated mice carrying a large(More)
Large production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) might be anticipated to pose risks, of accidental inhalation in occupational and even in consumer settings. Herein, we further investigated the pathological changes induced by ZnONP and their possible mechanism of action. Two doses of ZnONP (50 and 150 cm2/rat) were intratracheally instilled into(More)
CFA is an inflammatory condition of the lungs resulting in scarring, pulmonary failure and death. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but the pathogenesis is believed to involve a persistent immunological reaction to unidentified antigen in the lung resulting in tissue damage. Recent advances in our understanding of the immune system have shown that(More)
Theileria annulata is a protozoan parasite which infects and transforms bovine macrophages. Infected macrophages possess augmented antigen presentation capabilities, as they are able to activate the majority of T cells from unexposed animals. In vivo, T cells in the draining lymph node (principal site of parasite development) are activated(More)
Type 1 HIV gp120 is especially effective in disrupting immune cell function because it is able to cause dysregulation of both infected and uninfected cells. We report a novel CCR5-dependent mechanism of gp120-induced CD4 loss from macrophages. An M-tropic gp120, using CCR5, is able to induce 70% loss of cell surface CD4 from macrophages within an hour. This(More)
Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), and sarcoid are all immunologically mediated forms of interstitial lung disease. In contrast to most patients with EAA and sarcoid, patients with CFA show relentless pulmonary fibrosis which is unresponsive to immunosuppressive therapy. Previous studies have indicated a possible(More)
Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) is believed to have a pathogenesis mediated by the cellular arm of the immune system. Previous studies have, however, indicated the presence of B-lymphocyte aggregates, as well as evidence of local immunoglobulin production and increased levels of B-cell growth factors. It has recently been shown that CFA is associated(More)
Herpes simplex virus commonly causes 'cold sores', the virus often becoming latent after the primary infection and recrudescing at intervals. Six glycoproteins have been described in the virion and in the membranes of infected cells; much of the host's immune response is directed against these molecules. The functions of individual glycoproteins in the(More)