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There has been accumulating evidence that cognitive control can be adaptively regulated by monitoring for processing conflict as an index of online control demands. However, it is not yet known whether top-down control mechanisms respond to processing conflict in a manner specific to the operative task context or confer a more generalized benefit. While(More)
Mechanisms by which the brain monitors and modulates performance are an important focus of recent research. The conflict-monitoring hypothesis posits that the ACC detects conflict between competing response pathways which, in turn, signals for enhanced control. The N2, an ERP component that has been localized to ACC, has been observed after high conflict(More)
OBJECTIVE Deficits in working memory and cognitive control in schizophrenia are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortical function, including altered gamma band oscillations. These abnormalities are thought to reflect a deficiency in the synchronization of pyramidal cell activity that is dependent, in part, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(More)
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is active in conditions of performance monitoring including error commission and response conflict, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain in dispute. Recent work suggests that mPFC learns to predict the value of actions, and that error effects represent a discrepancy between actual and expected outcomes of an(More)
BACKGROUND Undenutrition is known to be prevalent and largely unrecognised in older patients; however, aberrations in indicators of nutritional status may simply reflect effects of age and/or functional disability. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to measure the effect, if any of age on nutritional status in older patients. DESIGN 445 randomly(More)
BACKGROUND The success of a human intervention trial depends upon the ability to recruit eligible volunteers. Many trials fail because of unrealistic recruitment targets and flawed recruitment strategies. In order to predict recruitment rates accurately, researchers need information on the relative success of various recruitment strategies. Few published(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have explored longitudinal change in event-related brain responses during early recovery from addiction. Moreover, existing findings yield evidence of both increased and decreased signaling within reward and control centers over time. The current study explored reward- and control-related signals in a risky decision-making task and(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. DESIGN Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their(More)
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