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Bergmann's rule states that, among conspecific populations, individuals are larger in cooler than in warmer environments as a consequence of selection related to heat conservation. Many of the most comprehensive assessments of Bergmann's rule to date have examined clinal patterns in body size among species assemblages. Our study is a more direct test of(More)
Although many amphibian populations around the world are declining at alarming rates, the cause of most declines remains unknown. Environmental contamination is one of several factors implicated in declines and may have particularly important effects on sensitive developmental stages. Despite the severe effects of maternal transfer of contaminants on early(More)
Early developmental experiences, such as incubation conditions, can have important consequences for post-hatching fitness in birds. Although the effects of incubation temperature on phenotype of avian hatchlings are poorly understood, recent research suggests that subtle changes in incubation conditions can influence hatchling characteristics, including(More)
Plasma glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) increase intermediary metabolism, which may be reflected in whole-animal metabolic rate. Studies in fish, birds, and reptiles have shown that GCs may alter whole-animal energy expenditure, but results are conflicting and often involve GC levels that are not physiologically relevant. A previous study in red-legged(More)
Release of glucocorticoids (GCs) enables organisms to meet energy requirements during stressful situations by regulating intermediary metabolism. In the absence of compensatory mechanisms, increased metabolic activity (e.g., protein catabolism, lipolysis, and gluconeogenesis) should translate to increases in whole animal metabolism, and therefore energy(More)
Parental effects play a vital role in shaping offspring phenotype. In birds, incubation behaviour is a critical parental effect because it influences the early developmental environment and can therefore have lifelong consequences for offspring phenotype. Recent studies that manipulated incubation temperature found effects on hatchling body composition,(More)
Suppression of the adrenocortical response (e.g., corticosterone release) to an acute stressor is a physiological adjustment thought to decrease the likelihood of avian parents abandoning their nests. However, some periods of parental care, like incubation, are energetically costly, thus corticosterone could increase during these stages to allow incubating(More)
Incubation temperature influences a suite of traits in avian offspring. However, the mechanisms underlying expression of these phenotypes are unknown. Given the importance of thyroid hormones in orchestrating developmental processes, we hypothesized that they may act as an upstream mechanism mediating the effects of temperature on hatchling phenotypic(More)
Reactive scope predicts that all animals have an adaptive ability to respond to stressors in their environment, termed reactive homeostasis, and that only when an animal's response to stressful stimuli exceeds a certain threshold (homeostatic overload) will stress have pathological effects. While this framework has successfully helped interpret effects of(More)
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