Sarah E. Diamond

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There are now thousands of estimates of phenotypic selection in natural populations, resulting in multiple synthetic reviews of these data. Here we consider several major lessons and limitations emerging from these syntheses, and how they may guide future studies of selection in the wild. First, we review past analyses of the patterns of directional(More)
Physiological tolerance of environmental conditions can influence species-level responses to climate change. Here, we used species-specific thermal tolerances to predict the community responses of ant species to experimental forest-floor warming at the northern and southern boundaries of temperate hardwood forests in eastern North America. We then compared(More)
Studies of phenotypic selection document directional selection in many natural populations. What factors reduce total directional selection and the cumulative evolutionary responses to selection? We combine two data sets for phenotypic selection, representing more than 4,600 distinct estimates of selection from 143 studies, to evaluate the potential roles(More)
1. Climate change will increase both average temperatures and extreme summer temperatures. Analyses of the fitness consequences of climate change have generally omitted negative fitness and population declines associated with heat stress. 2. Here, we examine how seasonal and interannual temperature variability will impact fitness shifts of ectotherms from(More)
The temperature-size rule, a form of phenotypic plasticity in which decreased temperature increases final size, is one of the most widespread patterns in biology, particularly for ectotherms. Identifying the environmental conditions in which this pattern is reversed is key to understanding the generality of the rule. We use wild and domesticated populations(More)
Social insects exhibit remarkable variation in their colony breeding structures, both within and among species. Ecological factors are believed to be important in shaping reproductive traits of social insect colonies, yet there is little information linking specific environmental variables with differences in breeding structure. Subterranean termites(More)
1. Adult size and development time are the outcomes of growth and differentiation throughout the life of an individual organism – its developmental trajectory. Correlations among ages and sizes across different life stages may influence both direct and indirect components of selection on body size and age during development. 2. We used two field studies in(More)
Adaptation to temporal variation in environmental conditions is widespread. Whether evolution in a constant environment alters adaptation to temporal variation is relatively unexplored. We examine how constant and diurnally fluctuating temperature conditions affect life-history traits in two populations of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta: a field(More)
Climatic warming is altering the behavior of individuals and the composition of communities. However, recent studies have shown that the impact of warming on ectotherms varies geographically: species at warmer sites where environmental temperatures are closer to their upper critical thermal limits are more likely to be negatively impacted by warming than(More)
How do species' traits help identify which species will respond most strongly to future climate change? We examine the relationship between species' traits and phenology in a well-established model system for climate change, the U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Most resident U.K. butterfly species have significantly advanced their dates of first(More)