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The adverse biological effects of continuous exposure to cobalt and chromium have been well defined. In the past, this toxicity was largely an industrial issue concerning workers exposed in occupational setting. Nevertheless, recent reports have described a specific toxicity mediated by the high levels of cobalt and chromium released by metallic prostheses,(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein in the body that acts as a growth factor for endothelial cells. It regulates angiogenesis, enhances vascular permeability, and plays a major role in wet age-related macular degeneration. The consistent association between choroidal neovascularization and increased(More)
Eye injury is a significant disabling worldwide health problem. Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a common complication that develops in up to 40-60% of patients with an open-globe injury. Our knowledge about the pathogenesis of PVR has improved in the last decades. It seems that the introduction of immune cells into the vitreous, like in penetrating(More)
In the past two decades, many advances have been made in vitrectomy instrumentation, surgical techniques, and the use of different tamponade agents. These agents serve close retinal breaks, confine eventual retinal redetachment, and prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Long-acting gases and silicone oil are effective internal tamponade agents;(More)
The inner limiting membrane (ILM) is the basement membrane of the Müller cells and can act as a scaffold for cellular proliferation in the pathophysiology of disorders affecting the vitreomacular interface. The atraumatic removal of the macular ILM has been proposed for treating various forms of tractional maculopathy in particular for macular pucker. In(More)
INTRODUCTION Anti-VEGF therapy improved the quality of life for millions of patients suffering from wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD); unfortunately, this therapy involves multiple injections over many years. The administration of anti-VEGF can overcome the blood-retinal barrier with agents entering the systemic circulation and causing a(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Different components of the immune system, including innate and adaptive immunity (T effector lymphocytes and T regulatory lymphocytes - TREGs) may be involved in the development of hypertension, vascular injury and inflammation. However, no data are presently available in humans about possible relationships between T-lymphocyte(More)
To compare visual and anatomical outcomes between half-dose photodynamic therapy (hd-PDT) and 689 nm laser therapy (689-LT) in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Forty eyes of 40 patients with symptomatic chronic CSC were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either hd-PDT or 689-LT delivering 95 J/cm2 via an intensity application of 805 mW/cm2(More)
Surgical management of an idiopathic macular hole consists of vitrectomy to release vitreofoveal traction and intraocular tamponade to flatten and reappose the hole's edges. The intentional atraumatic removal of the internal limiting membrane has been proposed as cost-effective option in macular hole surgery. The internal limiting membrane contributes to(More)
INTRODUCTION Pharmacologic vitreolysis is a strategy used to treat anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, by weakening vitreoretinal adhesion with an intravitreal drug. Pharmacologic vitreolysis facilitates surgery, and abnormalities of the vitreoretinal interface including vitreomacular traction (VMT) and early stage macular hole (MH) could be resolved.(More)