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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neuropsychiatric disorder with onset at preschool age. Although a significant amount of progress has been made investigating the neurobiology of this disorder, its precise etiology still remains unclear. Converging evidence from studies of the neuropharmacology, genetics,(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive control, defined as the ability to suppress inappropriate thoughts and actions, is compromised in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examines the neural basis of this deficit. METHODS We used a paradigm that incorporates a parametric manipulation within a go/nogo task, so that the number of go trials preceding(More)
Imagine you are at an intersection, waiting for the traffic lights. They turn green, and you are about to press the gas pedal, when suddenly a cyclist swerves into your lane. Before your foot has actually moved, you have to rapidly prevent it from moving as planned. This example highlights the everyday function of stopping an action, a form of response(More)
The human brain undergoes significant changes in both its structural architecture and functional organization across the life span. Advances in neuroimaging techniques over the past decade have allowed us to track these changes safely in the human in vivo. We review the imaging literature on the neurobiology of cognitive development, focusing specifically(More)
The present study explores the neural basis of the development of inhibitory control by combining functional neuroimaging with a parametric manipulation of a go-nogo paradigm. We demonstrate how the maturation of ventral fronto-striatal circuitry underlies the development of this ability. We used event-related fMRI to examine the effect of interference on(More)
In the current study we examined the influence of preceding context on attentional conflict and response competition using a flanker paradigm. Nine healthy right-handed adults participated in a rapid mixed trial event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, in which increasing numbers of either compatible or incompatible trials preceded(More)
Prevailing theories of implicit or unaware learning propose a developmental invariance model, with implicit function maturing early in infancy or childhood despite prolonged improvements in explicit or intentional learning and memory systems across childhood. Neuroimaging studies of adult visuomotor sequence learning have associated fronto-striatal brain(More)
OBJECTIVE The dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the mechanism by which it exerts its effects remains unknown. The polymorphism associated with ADHD has been shown to affect expression of the transporter in vitro and in vivo. Dopamine transporters are predominantly expressed in(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review highlights recent neuroimaging and genetic studies of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder that may inform biologically targeted interventions and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS The findings suggest that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is characterized by specific learning and cognitive deficits due to abnormalities(More)
Recent imaging studies have suggested that developmental changes may parallel aspects of adult learning in cortical activation becoming less diffuse and more focal over time. However, while adult learning studies examine changes within subjects, developmental findings have been based on cross-sectional samples and even comparisons across studies. Here, we(More)