Herman van Engeland21
B J Casey15
21Herman van Engeland
15B J Casey
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Imagine you are at an intersection, waiting for the traffic lights. They turn green, and you are about to press the gas pedal, when suddenly a cyclist swerves into your lane. Before your foot has actually moved, you have to rapidly prevent it from moving as planned. This example highlights the everyday function of stopping an action, a form of response(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive control, defined as the ability to suppress inappropriate thoughts and actions, is compromised in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examines the neural basis of this deficit. METHODS We used a paradigm that incorporates a parametric manipulation within a go/nogo task, so that the number of go trials preceding(More)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neuropsychiatric disorder with onset at preschool age. Although a significant amount of progress has been made investigating the neurobiology of this disorder, its precise etiology still remains unclear. Converging evidence from studies of the neuropharmacology, genetics,(More)
Prevailing theories of implicit or unaware learning propose a developmental invariance model, with implicit function maturing early in infancy or childhood despite prolonged improvements in explicit or intentional learning and memory systems across childhood. Neuroimaging studies of adult visuomotor sequence learning have associated fronto-striatal brain(More)
OBJECTIVE The dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the mechanism by which it exerts its effects remains unknown. The polymorphism associated with ADHD has been shown to affect expression of the transporter in vitro and in vivo. Dopamine transporters are predominantly expressed in(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review highlights recent neuroimaging and genetic studies of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder that may inform biologically targeted interventions and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS The findings suggest that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is characterized by specific learning and cognitive deficits due to abnormalities(More)
Recent imaging studies have suggested that developmental changes may parallel aspects of adult learning in cortical activation becoming less diffuse and more focal over time. However, while adult learning studies examine changes within subjects, developmental findings have been based on cross-sectional samples and even comparisons across studies. Here, we(More)
Frontostriatal brain areas have been implicated in the neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little work has directly addressed the white matter connections between these regions. The present study investigates the microstructural organization and myelination of frontostriatal white matter in children with ADHD and controls.(More)
Changes in cortical thickness over time have been related to intelligence, but whether changes in cortical surface area are related to general cognitive functioning is unknown. We therefore examined the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and changes in cortical thickness and surface over time in 504 healthy subjects. At 10 years of age, more(More)
There is evidence that the timing of developmental changes in cortical volume and thickness varies across the brain, although the processes behind these differences are not well understood. In contrast to volume and thickness, the regional developmental trajectories of cortical surface area have not yet been described. The present study used a combined(More)