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BACKGROUND A specific psychotherapy for chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), was compared to escitalopram (ESC). METHODS Sixty patients with chronic major depression were randomized to 'CBASP' (22 sessions) or 'ESC plus clinical management' (ESC/CM) at two treatment sites. The primary outcome measure was(More)
BACKGROUND The only treatment specifically developed for chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), is based amongst others on the hypothesis that chronically depressed patients (CD) show considerable deficits of affective theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. Data are scarce, however, and it remains unclear if ToM(More)
Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great(More)
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been indicated as a predictor of a differential response to antidepressant treatment with psychotherapy compared to medication. In this secondary analysis, we investigated whether the presence of CM results in a differential indication for the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) or escitalopram plus(More)
Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind(More)
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