Sarah Drayton

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The INK4a/ARF tumor suppressor locus is implicated in the senescence-like growth arrest provoked by oncogenic Ras in primary cells. INK4a and ARF are distinct proteins encoded by transcripts in which a shared exon is decoded in alternative reading frames. Here we analyze dermal fibroblasts (designated Q34) from an individual carrying independent missense(More)
Access to cDNA encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase and the consequent ability to immortalize human cells in culture has enabled researchers to 'transform' normal cells into malignant clones. However, there is a continuing debate over the number of genetic alterations required and clear differences in the way that mouse and human cells respond to(More)
The Ink4a/Arf locus encodes two distinct proteins, both of which may contribute to senescence and tumor suppression. We find that human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) that are specifically deficient for p16INK4a achieve anchorage independence when transduced with retroviruses encoding telomerase (hTERT) and either Ras or Myc. Significantly, Ras and Myc together(More)
Human cells, including fibroblast strains that have been immortalized by telomerase, are much more resistant to transformation than rodent cells. Most of the experimental evidence suggests that transformation of human fibroblasts requires inactivation of both the retinoblastoma (pRb) and p53 tumor suppressors as well as the addition of one or more dominant(More)
Synthetic discriminant functions (SDFs) made using Fresnel lens-encoded binary phase-only filters are shown to yield increased performance relative to SDFs constructed using conventional binary phase-only filters. We present both computer simulations and experimental results in which these SDFs are written onto the magnetooptic spatial light modulator.
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