Sarah D Chandler

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Injection of GABA into the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) activates medullary neurons that are involved in pain inhibition and potentiates morphine-induced analgesia. These observations suggest that GABAergic mechanisms in the PAG may modulate the descending pain inhibitory system that arises from this structure. In the present study, the effects of(More)
Intracellular and extracellular recording techniques and in vitro preparation were used to examine the effect of [Met]enkephalin on the rat periaqueductal neurons. In the 20 cells that were recorded intracellularly, [Met]enkephalin caused an increase in the resting membrane conductance, hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, an increase in the firing(More)
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is an important integration site for pain, autonomic functions, vocalization, fear and anxiety. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a major neurotransmitter in the PAG and CCK receptors are heterogeneously distributed within the PAG. Since CCK antagonists are anxiolytic and potentiate morphine analgesia, it is possible that these effects(More)
We electrophysiologically examined the connection between the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and examined the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in this pathway. Train electrical stimulation of the BLA excited 21% (7/33) and inhibited 27% (9/33) of the cells recorded in the PAG. Chemical(More)
The effect of epinephrine (EPI) on the activity of 150 periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons was examined using extracellular recordings in an in vitro slice preparation. Drop application of EPI inhibited 45%, excited 35%, and had no effect on 20% of PAG neurons. Both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of EPI were of long duration; excitatory responses(More)
A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses was detected in North America in late 2014. Motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in Canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the(More)
Estimates are developed for the number of people incarcerated in the US for drug-law violations between 1972-2002, broken down by type of institution (federal prison, state prison, or jail) and to the extent possible by nature of drug offense (possession/use, trafficking, or other). These time series are compared to trends in drug use indicators, revealing(More)
Experimental evidence does not currently exist to support the claims of clinical effectiveness for myofascial release techniques. This presents an obvious need to document the effects of myofascial release. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two techniques, sagittal plane isometric contract-relax and myofascial release leg pull for(More)
Naming and word-retrieval deficits, which are common characteristics of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), differentially affect production across word classes (e.g., nouns, verbs) in some patients. Individuals with the agrammatic variant (PPA-G) often show greater difficulty producing verbs whereas those with the semantic variant (PPA-S) show greater noun(More)