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Repeated low-level exposures to biological agents could occur before or after the remediation of an environmental release. This is especially true for persistent agents such as B. anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to deliver a low-dose(More)
There is a need to better understand inhalational anthrax in relevant animal models. This understanding could aid risk assessment, help define therapeutic windows, and provide a better understanding of disease. The aim here was to characterize and quantify bacterial deposition and dissemination in rabbits following exposure to single high aerosol dose (>(More)
Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States and is transmitted by Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes species. The disease is typically characterized by an erythema migrans (EM) rash at the site of tick feeding. EM rashes have also been associated with feeding by Amblyomma americanum ticks despite evidence(More)
Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA; BioThrax), the current FDA-licensed human anthrax vaccine, contains various amounts of the three anthrax toxin components, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). While antibody to PA is sufficient to mediate protection against anthrax in animal models, it is not known if antibodies to LF or EF(More)
Anthrax toxin consists of protective antigen (PA) and two toxic components, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). PA binds to mammalian cellular receptors and delivers the toxic components to the cytoplasm. PA is the primary antigenic component of the current anthrax vaccine. Immunity is due to the generation of antibodies that prevent the PA-mediated(More)
The Legionella species have been identified as important waterborne pathogens in terms of disease morbidity and mortality. Microbial exposure assessment is a tool that can be utilized to assess the potential of Legionella species inhalation exposure from common water uses. The screening-level exposure assessment presented in this paper developed emission(More)
Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA) binds to its cellular receptor, and seven subunits self-associate to form a heptameric ring that mediates the cytoplasmic entry of lethal factor or edema factor. The influence of receptor type on susceptibility to anthrax toxin components was examined using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human form of(More)
Survival models are developed to predict response and time-to-response for mortality in rabbits following exposures to single or multiple aerosol doses of Bacillus anthracis spores. Hazard function models were developed for a multiple-dose data set to predict the probability of death through specifying functions of dose response and the time between(More)
In the event of an indoor release of an environmentally persistent microbial pathogen such as Bacillus anthracis, the potential for human exposure will be considered when remedial decisions are made. Microbial site characterization and clearance sampling data collected in the field might be used to estimate exposure. However, there are many challenges(More)
ii Disclaimer This document provides internal guidance to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) personnel; EPA retains the discretion, however, to adopt, on a case-by-case basis, approaches that differ from this guidance. The guidance set forth in this document does not create any rights, substantive or procedural, enforceable by law for a party in(More)