Sarah C. Keane

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The 5' leader of the HIV-1 genome contains conserved elements that direct selective packaging of the unspliced, dimeric viral RNA into assembling particles. By using a (2)H-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach, we determined the structure of a 155-nucleotide region of the leader that is independently capable of directing packaging (core(More)
All coronaviruses (CoVs), including the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), encode a nucleocapsid (N) protein that harbors two independent RNA binding domains of known structure, but poorly characterized RNA binding properties. We show here that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of N protein from mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a virus most(More)
Isotope labeling has revolutionized NMR studies of small nucleic acids, but to extend this technology to larger RNAs, site-specific labeling tools to expedite NMR structural and dynamics studies are required. Using enzymes from the pentose phosphate pathway, we coupled chemically synthesized uracil nucleobase with specifically (13) C-labeled ribose to(More)
Stem-loop 2 (SL2) of the 5'-untranslated region of the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) contains a highly conserved pentaloop (C47-U48-U49-G50-U51) stacked on a 5-bp stem. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are consistent with a 5'-uYNMG(U)a or uCUYG(U)a tetraloop conformation characterized by an anti-C47-syn-G50 base-pairing interaction, with U51(More)
Coronavirus (CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein contains two structurally independent RNA binding domains. These are denoted N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain and are joined by a charged linker region rich in serine and arginine residues (SR linker). In mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), the NTD binds the transcriptional regulatory sequence (TRS) RNA, a(More)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that infect a variety of vertebrate hosts. The CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein contains two structurally independent RNA binding domains, designated the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the dimeric C-terminal domain (CTD), joined by a charged linker region rich in serine and arginine(More)
HIV-1 Gag selects and packages a dimeric, unspliced viral RNA in the context of a large excess of cytosolic human RNAs. As Gag assembles on the plasma membrane, the HIV-1 genome is enriched relative to cellular RNAs by an unknown mechanism. We used a minimal system consisting of purified RNAs, recombinant HIV-1 Gag and giant unilamellar vesicles to(More)
HIV type-1 (HIV-1) contains a pseudodiploid RNA genome that is selected for packaging and maintained in virions as a noncovalently linked dimer. Genome dimerization is mediated by conserved elements within the 5'-leader of the RNA, including a palindromic dimer initiation signal (DIS) that has been proposed to form kissing hairpin and/or extended duplex(More)
The 5'-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA) fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally(More)
Nonstructural protein (nsp) 3 is the largest of 16 nsps translated from the murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genome. The N-terminal most domain of nsp3, nsp3a, has been identified by reverse genetics as a likely binding partner of MHV nucleocapsid protein. Here we report the backbone and side chain resonance assignments of MHV nsp3a (residues 1-114).
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