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The role of insulin in the brain is still not completely understood. In the periphery, insulin can decrease inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, whether insulin can reduce inflammation within the brain is unknown. Experiments administrating intranasal insulin to young and aged adults have shown that insulin improves memory. In our(More)
Impaired memory may result from synaptic glutamatergic dysregulation related to chronic neuroinflammation. GLT1 is the primary excitatory amino acid transporter responsible for regulating extracellular glutamate levels in the hippocampus. We tested the hypothesis that if impaired spatial memory results from increased extracellular glutamate due to age or(More)
We have previously demonstrated that antagonism of glutamate NMDA receptors or activation of endocannabinoid receptors could reduce experimentally induced neuroinflammation within the hippocampus of young rats. In the current study, we investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of glutamate or endocannabinoid neurotransmission could reduce(More)
The current study investigated the hypothesis that the duration of the proinflammatory environment plays a critical role in the brain's response that results in negative consequences on cognition, biochemistry, and pathology. Lipopolysaccharide or artificial cerebrospinal fluid was slowly (250 ηg/h) infused into the fourth ventricle of young (3-month-old),(More)
Neuroinflammation and degeneration of catecholaminergic brainstem nuclei occur early in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Neuroinflammation increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal calcium (Ca+2) homoeostasis via L-type voltage dependent calcium channels(More)
Chronic neuroinflammation is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases and is present during very early stages, yet significant pathology and behavioral deficits do not manifest until advanced age. We investigated the consequences of experimentally-induced chronic neuroinflammation within the hippocampus and brainstem of young (4 mo) F-344 rats.(More)
The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is known to play a role in several models of aging, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we document a detailed time- and age-dependent pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers following bilateral intrahippocampal injection of interleukin-1β. During the first 12h several pro- and(More)
Inflammation is a pathological hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent evidence suggests that immune cells such as lymphocytes are of particular relevance for lesion development after TBI. FTY720, a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, sequesters T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs and has been shown to improve outcome in a variety of(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a strong inflammatory response which includes blood-brain barrier damage, edema formation and infiltration of different immune cell subsets. More recently, microvascular thrombosis has been identified as another pathophysiological feature of TBI. The contact-kinin system represents an interface between inflammatory and(More)
A hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the presence of senile plaques in human brain primarily containing the amyloid peptides Aβ42 and Aβ40. Many drug discovery efforts have focused on decreasing the production of Aβ42 through γ-secretase inhibition. However, identification of γ-secretase inhibitors has also uncovered mechanism-based side effects. One(More)