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During vertebrate evolution there has been a shift in the way in which the heart varies cardiac output (the product of heart rate and stroke volume). While mammals, birds, and amphibians increase cardiac output through large increases in heart rate and only modest increases (approximately 30%) in stroke volume, fish and some reptiles use modest increases in(More)
In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein(More)
The properties of left ventricular cardiac myocytes vary transmurally. This may be related to the gradients of stress and strain experienced in vivo across the ventricular wall. We tested the hypothesis that within the rat left ventricle there are transmural differences in the expression of genes for proteins that are involved in mechanosensitive pathways(More)
β(1)-Adrenergic receptors (β(1)ARs) and E-type prostaglandin receptors (EPRs) both produce compartmentalized cAMP responses in cardiac myocytes. The role of cholesterol-dependent lipid rafts in producing these compartmentalized responses was investigated in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β(1)ARs were found in lipid raft and non-lipid raft containing(More)
BACKGROUND Many ion channels are preferentially located in caveolae where compartmentalisation/scaffolding with signal transduction components regulates their activity. Channels that are mechanosensitive may be additionally dependent on caveolar control of the mechanical state of the membrane. Here we test which mechanism underlies caveolar-regulation of(More)
The number of people taking statins is increasing across the globe, highlighting the importance of fully understanding statins' effects on the cardiovascular system. The beneficial impact of statins extends well beyond regression of atherosclerosis to include direct effects on tissues of the cardiovascular system ('pleiotropic effects'). Pleiotropic effects(More)
Inotropy and lusitropy in the ventricular myocyte can be efficiently induced by activation of β1-, but not β2-, adrenoceptors (ARs). Compartmentation of β2-AR-derived cAMP-dependent signalling underlies this functional discrepancy. Here we investigate the mechanism by which caveolae (specialised sarcolemmal invaginations rich in cholesterol and caveolin-3)(More)
The lipid raft concept proposes that membrane environments enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids cluster certain proteins and form platforms to integrate cell signaling. In cardiac muscle, caveolae concentrate signaling molecules and ion transporters, and play a vital role in adrenergic regulation of excitation-contraction coupling, and consequently(More)
Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in(More)
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