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High-affinity glycine transport in neurons and glial cells is a primary means of inactivating synaptic glycine. We have synthesized a potent selective inhibitor of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1), and characterized its activity using a quail fibroblast cell line (QT6). The glycine transporters GlyT1A, GlyT1B, GlyT1C, and GlyT2 were stably expressed in QT6(More)
Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) confer voltage dependence on effector domains of membrane proteins. Ion channels use four VSDs to control a gate in the pore domain, but in the recently discovered phosphatase Ci-VSP, the number of subunits has been unknown. Using single-molecule microscopy to count subunits and voltage clamp fluorometry to detect structural(More)
In the voltage-sensing phosphatase Ci-VSP, a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) controls a lipid phosphatase domain (PD). The mechanism by which the domains are allosterically coupled is not well understood. Using an in vivo assay, we found that the interdomain linker that connects the VSD to the PD is essential for coupling the full-length protein. Biochemical(More)
Ecdysteroid hormones are crucial in controlling the growth, molting and metamorphosis of insects. The predominant source of ecdysteroids in pre-adult insects is the prothoracic gland, which is under the acute control of the neuropeptide hormone prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Previous studies using the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, have shown that(More)
Potassium channels are among the core functional elements of life because they underpin essential cellular functions including excitability, homeostasis, and secretion. We present here a series of multivalent calix[4]arene ligands that bind to the surface of voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)1.x) in a reversible manner. Molecular modeling correctly(More)
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