BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a non-classical endogenous opioid peptide that modulates immune function in vitro. Its importance in inflammation and human sepsis is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between N/OFQ, transcripts for its precursor (pre-pro-N/OFQ [ppNOC]) and receptor (NOP),… (More)
This is a two-part unit on using spinal opioids to manage postoperative pain. Part 1 outlines the pharmacology and adverse effects. For details on spinal anatomy and dose levels, plus a table that outlines the differences between spinal anaesthesia and analgesia, and epidural analgesia, see Portfolio Pages at nursingtimes.net.