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OBJECTIVES To update the WHO global and regional estimates of the prevalence and incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. METHODS Prevalence estimates for syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis were generated for each of the nine UN regions for males and females between the ages of 15 and 49 in 1995 based on an(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of infection with HIV-1 and the risk factors associated with seroconversion in three geographical strata of a rural Ugandan district. DESIGN Serological, sociodemographic, and behavioural surveys of everyone aged 13 or more in 21 randomly selected communities at baseline and one year later. SETTING Rural population(More)
Infections with human immunodeficiency virus are common in areas of the world where laboratory testing and sophisticated diagnostic facilities are unavailable. A World Health Organization clinical case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was developed in 1985 for use in such areas. In 1987, we tested this definition on 1328 inpatients and(More)
In countries in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV is transmitted primarily heterosexually. HIV infection and AIDS in women not only affects women's health but also has implications for the other members of society. Maternal infection is the source of most childhood HIV infection in Africa and maternal health is a strong predictor of child survival. In Uganda, a(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the design and first-round survey results of a trial of intensive sexually transmitted disease (STD) control to reduce HIV-1 incidence. STUDY DESIGN Randomized, controlled, community-based trial in Rakai District, Uganda. METHODS In this ongoing study, 56 communities were grouped into 10 clusters designed to encompass social/sexual(More)
Risk factor data were collected in 1,328 inpatients and outpatients in 1987 in 15 hospitals throughout Uganda; 42% were positive for HIV antibodies by ELISA. Seropositivity was associated with urban residence, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), number of sex partners, and sex for payment or with a person with an AIDS-like illness. Homosexuality and(More)
A vesicular, peeling rash characteristic of a phytophototoxic dermatitis developed on the hands and arms of 30 of 127 grocery workers. The rash subsequently healed with residual hyperpigmentation. Produce workers had the highest attack rate, 100% (8 of 8, p less than 0.0001). Although contact with celery had the highest relative risk for disease (relative(More)
A survey of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 3928 Ugandans concerning AIDS was done in two semi-rural communities in August 1987. Eighty-eight per cent of the respondents knew that AIDS could be acquired from other people and that having multiple sexual partners was high-risk behaviour. There were, however, many incorrect beliefs about HIV(More)
In the developed world, surveillance for AIDS has provided up-to-date information for researchers, clinicians, public health workers and policy makers. In Africa, however, there is no standardized format or methodology for AIDS surveillance. In August 1987, Uganda developed a clinical case definition for AIDS reporting, based upon the World Health(More)
The pathogenic basis for the association of tampons with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) has not been explained adequately. Absorbency and chemical composition of tampons are related, and no prior study has had a sufficient number of cases to evaluate these independently as risk factors for disease. We compared national TSS passive surveillance data on the 285(More)