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Although the skeleton's adaptability to load-bearing has been recognized for over a century, the specific mechanical components responsible for strengthening it have not been identified. Here we show that after mechanically stimulating the hindlimbs of adult sheep on a daily basis for a year with 20-minute bursts of very-low-magnitude, high-frequency(More)
OBJECTIVE A study was performed to produce reference standards for spirometric lung function in white children and to calculate standard deviation scores adjusted for gender and pubertal stage. METHODS A cross sectional study was made of 772 white children aged 4.6 to 18.8 years (455 male) tested on an OHIO 840 spirometer and assessed anthropometrically(More)
OBJECTIVE A study was performed to determine reference ranges for whole body plethysmographic gas volumes and single breath gas transfer in healthy prepubertal and pubertal schoolchildren. METHODS The study was performed in 772 white London schoolchildren (455 male) who were clinically examined, assessed auxologically and, in 63% of cases, pubertally(More)
In this paper we review the last several years of work from our lab with attention to changes in the properties of basal forebrain neurons during aging. These neurons play a central role in behavioral functions, such as: attention, arousal, cognition and autonomic activity, and these functions can be adversely affected during aging. Therefore, it is(More)
In previous issues of Critical Care and other publications, authors have characterized emerging therapies such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and functional electrical stimulation (FES)-cycling as promising tools to help prevent the onset of ICU-acquired weakness [1-3]. Despite compelling preliminary data, practical challenges with these(More)
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