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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Arsenicals have been used medicinally for decades to treat both infectious disease and cancer. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is effective for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), yet the mechanism of action of this drug is still widely debated. Recently, As2O3 was shown to inhibit the activity of the selenoenzyme thioredoxin(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to arsenic has been associated with development of skin, lung, bladder, liver, and kidney cancer. Recent evidence suggests that an increase in oxidative stress in cells treated with arsenicals represents the molecular mechanism behind arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Selenium, in the form of selenocysteine, is necessary for the activity(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We investigated whether or not kinin receptors play a role in diabetic blood-retinal barrier breakdown, which is a leading cause of vision loss. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Blood-retinal barrier breakdown was quantified using Evans blue, and expression of kinin B(1) receptor mRNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcrition-PCR.(More)
The execution time of a program is critically dependent on the rate at which instructions and data can be fetched from and written to memory. Over the last decade, processor speeds have increased by more than two orders of magnitude, but main memory speeds have only just doubled over the same period. As a result, the ability to execute instructions and(More)
A key problem for shared-memory systems is unpredictable performance. A critical innuence on performance is page placement: a poor choice of home node can severely degrade application performance because of the increased latency of accessing remote rather than local data. Two approaches to page placement are the simple policies \\rst-touch" and(More)
Coherent-cache shared-memory architectures often give disappointing performance which can be alleviated by manual tuning. We describe a new trace analysis tool, clarissa, which helps diagnose problems and pinpoint their causes. Unusually, clarissa works by analysing potential contention, instead of measuring predicted contention by simulating a speciic(More)
In simple cache coherency protocols, serialisation can occur when many simultaneous accesses are made to data held in a single node, and when many accesses involve a common \home" node controller. This is ameliorated in various designs with a hierarchical or clustered structure. In this paper we investigate the idea of routing requests via an intermediate(More)
A k ey problem for shared-memory systems is unpredictable performance. A critical innuence on performance is page placement: a poor choice of home node can severely degrade application performance because of the increased latency of accessing remote rather than local data. Two approaches to page placement are the simple policies \\rst-touch" and(More)