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Follicular helper T cells (Tfh cells) are the major producers of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in secondary lymphoid organs where humoral immune responses develop. Il4 regulation in Tfh cells appears distinct from the classical T helper 2 (Th2) cell pathway, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We found that hypersensitivity site V (HS V;(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in early host defense to infected and transformed cells. Here, we show that mice deficient in Eri1, a conserved 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease that represses RNA interference, have a cell-intrinsic defect in NK-cell development and maturation. Eri1(-/-) NK cells displayed delayed acquisition of Ly49 receptors in the(More)
Despite its importance in development and physiology the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway remains one of the most enigmatic signaling mechanisms. The notochord of the ascidian Ciona provides a unique model for investigating the PCP pathway. Interestingly, the notochord appears to be the only embryonic structure in Ciona activating the PCP pathway.(More)
Studies in tunicates such as Ciona have revealed new insights into the evolutionary origins of chordate development. Ciona populations are characterized by high levels of natural genetic variation, between 1 and 5%. This variation has provided abundant material for forward genetic studies. In the current study, we make use of deep sequencing and(More)
A major class of human birth defects arise from aberrations during neural tube closure (NTC). We report on a NTC signaling pathway requiring T-type calcium channels (TTCCs) that is conserved between primitive chordates (Ciona) and Xenopus. With loss of TTCCs, there is a failure to seal the anterior neural folds. Accompanying loss of TTCCs is an upregulation(More)
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