Sarah A. Howles

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BACKGROUND Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with three variants: types 1, 2, and 3. Type 1 is due to loss-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptor that signals through the G-protein subunit α11 (Gα11). Type 3 is associated with(More)
The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in(More)
We investigated whether vaccination of healthy HIV-seronegative and HIV-1-seropositive antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing an HIV-1 immunogen (MVA.HIVA) induced MVA-specific T cell responses. Using IFN-γ Elispot assays, we observed new or increased responses to MVA virus in 52% of(More)
Adaptor protein-2 (AP2), a central component of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), is pivotal in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which internalizes plasma membrane constituents such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). AP2, a heterotetramer of α, β, μ and σ subunits, links clathrin to vesicle membranes and binds to tyrosine- and dileucine-based motifs of(More)
Urinary proteins have been implicated as inhibitors of kidney stone formation (urolithiasis). As a proximal fluid, prefiltered by the kidneys, urine is an attractive biofluid for proteomic analysis in urologic conditions. However, it is necessary to correct for variations in urinary concentration. In our study, individual urine samples were normalized for(More)
CONTEXT Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) types 1 and 2 are due to calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and G-protein subunit-α11 (GNA11) gain-of-function mutations, respectively, whereas CASR and GNA11 loss-of-function mutations result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) types 1 and 2, respectively. Loss-of-function mutations of adaptor protein-2(More)
To the editor: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with three variants: types 1, 2, and 3. Type 1 is caused by calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) mutations,1 and type 2 is caused by guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G-protein) subunit α11 (GNA11) mutations.2 Type 3, which is the most severe variant clinically, is(More)
Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia, inappropriately low serum parathyroid hormone concentrations and hypercalciuria. ADH is genetically heterogeneous with ADH type 1 (ADH1), the predominant form, being caused by germline gain-of-function mutations of the G-protein coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), and ADH2 caused(More)
Germline loss- and gain-of-function mutations of G-protein α-11 (Gα11), which couples the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) i) signaling, lead to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 2 (FHH2) and autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), respectively, whereas somatic Gα11 mutations mediate uveal melanoma development(More)
OBJECTIVE To differentiate between the effects of parasympathetic and sensorimotor stimulation of isolated mouse and guinea-pig bladders in vitro by measuring the pressure increases to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and then comparing the effects of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) applied either to the lumen or to the external bathing medium. (More)