Sara Rockwell

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Hypoxic fractions are measured by indirect techniques, which compare the response of tumors to large single doses of radiation given under normal aeration and artificial hypoxia. This paper reviews hypoxic fraction measurements and measurement techniques, giving particular attention to the biological, technical, and statistical aspects of the assays; the(More)
The tumor microenvironment is characterized by regions of fluctuating hypoxia, low pH, and nutrient deprivation. To determine the genetic consequences of growth under these conditions, we used a tumorigenic cell line carrying a recoverable, chromosomally based lambda phage shuttle vector designed to report mutations without the need for genetic selection of(More)
Mitomycin C, a bioreductive alkylating agent with clinical utility against several human tumors, was found to be selectively toxic at a relatively low concentration (1.5 micro M) to EMT6 tumor cells made chronically hypoxic by preincubation in 95% N2-5% CO2 for 4 hr prior to drug exposure. This selective cytotoxicity correlated well with the preferential(More)
The hypoxic tumor microenvironment has been shown to contribute to genetic instability. As one possible mechanism for this effect, we report that expression of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene Mlh1 is specifically reduced in mammalian cells under hypoxia, whereas expression of other MMR genes, including Msh2, Msh6, and Pms2, is not altered at the mRNA(More)
This study quantifies the spatial distribution of pO2 in glioma and in the surrounding brain tissue. Both glioma and peritumoural brain contain regions at oxygen tensions less than 2.5 mmHg. Modalities targeting hypoxia to improve the efficacy of therapy may have an important role in the management of this disease.
Hypoxic cells of solid tumors are difficult to eradicate by X-irradiation or chemotherapy; as an approach to this problem, our laboratories are investigating the effects of the bioreductive alkylating agent mitomycin C (MC) on hypoxic cells. This antibiotic was preferentially toxic to EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells and V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts(More)
Current events throughout the world underscore the growing threat of different forms of terrorism, including radiological or nuclear attack. Pharmaceutical products and other approaches are needed to protect the civilian population from radiation and to treat those with radiation-induced injuries. In the event of an attack, radiation exposures will be(More)
The resistance of gliomas to treatment with radiation and antineoplastic drugs may result in part from the effects of the extensive, severe hypoxia that is present in these tumors. It is clear that brain tumors contain extensive regions in which the tumor cells are subjected to unphysiological levels of hypoxia. Hypoxic cells are resistant to radiation.(More)
A randomized prospective clinical trial was carried out to assess the usefulness of the addition of mitomycin C to radiation therapy used alone or in combination with surgery for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. One hundred and twenty patients with biopsy proven tumor of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx,(More)
We have demonstrated previously that dicoumarol (DIC) increased the generation of reactive metabolites from mitomycin C (MC) in EMT6 cells under hypoxic conditions in vitro. This increased reaction rate was associated with an increased toxicity of MC to hypoxic EMT6 cells. In contrast, aerobic cells treated with DIC in vitro were protected from MC toxicity.(More)