Learn More
Disruption of the mouse dopamine transporter gene results in spontaneous hyperlocomotion despite major adaptive changes, such as decreases in neurotransmitter and receptor levels. In homozygote mice, dopamine persists at least 100 times longer in the extracellular space, explaining the biochemical basis of the hyperdopaminergic phenotype and demonstrating(More)
The mechanism by which psychostimulants act as calming agents in humans with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or hyperkinetic disorder is currently unknown. Mice lacking the gene encoding the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) have elevated dopaminergic tone and are hyperactive. This activity was exacerbated by exposure to a novel(More)
The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important role in calibrating the duration and intensity of dopamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. We have used a strain of mice in which the gene for the DAT has been genetically deleted to identify the DAT's homeostatic role. We find that removal of the DAT dramatically prolongs the lifetime (300(More)
Amphetamine (AMPH) inhibits uptake and causes release of dopamine (DA) from presynaptic terminals. AMPH can act on both vesicular storage of DA and directly on the dopamine transporter (DAT). To assess the relative importance of these two processes, we have examined the releasing actions of AMPH in mice with a genetic deletion of the DAT. The sequence of(More)
The plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for clearing dopamine from the synapse. Cocaine blockade of DAT leads to increased extracellular dopamine, an effect widely considered to be the primary cause of the reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine. In this study we tested whether these properties are limited to the dopaminergic(More)
Abnormal dopaminergic transmission is implicated in schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and drug addiction. In an attempt to model aspects of these disorders, we have generated hyperdopaminergic mutant mice by reducing expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT) to 10% of wild-type levels (DAT knockdown). Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin-orexin system participates in the regulation of reinforcement processes. The current studies examined the extent to which hypocretin neurotransmission regulates behavioral and neurochemical responses to cocaine, and behavioral responses to food reinforcement. These studies used a combination of fixed ratio,(More)
The action of norepinephrine (NE) is terminated, in part, by its uptake into presynaptic noradrenergic neurons by the plasma-membrane NE transporter (NET), which is a target for antidepressants and psychostimulants. Disruption of the NET gene in mice prolonged the clearance of NE and elevated extracellular levels of this catecholamine. In a classical test(More)
Regional differences in the kinetics and pharmacological inhibition of dopamine uptake were investigated with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in both the intact rat brain and a brain slice preparation. The regions compared were the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, caudate-putamen, and nucleus accumbens. The frequency dependence of dopamine efflux evoked in vivo(More)
Vesicular monoamine transporters are known to transport monoamines from the cytoplasm into secretory vesicles. We have used homologous recombination to generate mutant mice lacking the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), the predominant form expressed in the brain. Newborn homozygotes die within a few days after birth, manifesting severely impaired(More)