Sara N. Vallerie

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It has been established that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is essential to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although JNK influences inflammatory signaling pathways, it remains unclear whether its activity in macrophages contributes to adipose tissue inflammation and ultimately to the regulation of systemic metabolism. To(More)
We reported earlier that β-cell-specific overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia in diabetic db/db mice and prevented glucotoxicity-induced deterioration of β-cell mass and function. We have now ascertained whether early treatment of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with ebselen, an oral GPx mimetic, will(More)
C ardiovascular cells that contribute directly to atheroscle-rosis and cardiac dysfunction are known to exhibit metabolic flexibility, characterized by the ability to switch from generating ATP primarily through oxidative phosphorylation to using glycolysis as the predominate energy source, and to shift from one fuel source to another. This flexibility(More)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications induced by atherosclerosis. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is often raised in states of inflammation, including diabetes, and regulates inflammatory processes. In myeloid cells, a key cell type in atherosclerosis, PGE2 acts predominately through its Prostaglandin E Receptor 4 (EP4;(More)
Silymarin (SIL) is a flavonoid extracted from milk thistle seed that has been reported to decrease hyperglycemia in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is not known whether SIL has direct secretory effects on β-cells. Using the β-cell line HIT-T15, SIL was shown to decrease intracellular peroxide levels and to augment glucose-stimulated insulin(More)
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