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The cis-acting mRNA elements that promote programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting present a natural target for the rational design of antiretroviral chemotherapies. It has been commonly accepted that the HIV-1 frameshifting signal is special, because its downstream enhancer element consists of a simple mRNA stem loop rather than a more complex secondary(More)
Clerocidin, a diterpenoid with antibacterial and antitumor activity, stimulates in vitro DNA cleavage mediated by mammalian and bacterial topoisomerase (topo) II. Different from the classical topoisomerase poisons, clerocidin-stimulated breaks at guanines immediately preceding the sites of DNA cleavage are not resealed upon heat or salt treatment. To(More)
[structure: see text] The interaction between the HIV-1 Tat protein and the TAR RNA element in the nascent viral genomic transcript is required for viral replication. An 11-residue beta-peptide (1), an all-beta homologue of the Arg-rich region Tat 47-57, binds TAR RNA with K(d) = 29 +/- 4 nM. A control beta-peptide (2) in which all Arg side chains are(More)
Quinolones represent an important class of broad-spectrum antibacterials, the main structural features of which are a 1,4 dihydro-4-oxo-quinolinyl moiety bearing an essential carboxyl group at position 3. Quinolones inhibit prokaryotic type II topoisomerases, namely DNA gyrase and, in a few cases, topoisomerase IV, through direct binding to the bacterial(More)
OBJECTIVES A dynamic G-quadruplex region has been previously shown to form in the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of the HIV-1 integrated DNA genome. Inhibition of promoter activity and antiviral effects have been observed when this region was stabilized by BRACO-19, a trisubstituted acridine derivative that binds G-quadruplexes. Here, we aimed at(More)
G-Quadruplexes, noncanonical nucleic acid structures, act as silencers in the promoter regions of human genes; putative G-quadruplex forming sequences are also present in promoters of other mammals, yeasts, and prokaryotes. Here we show that also the HIV-1 LTR promoter exploits G-quadruplex-mediated transcriptional regulation with striking similarities to(More)
Replication of HIV requires the Tat protein, which activates elongation of RNA polymerase II transcription at the HIV-1 promoter by interacting with the cyclin T1 (CycT1) subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor complex b (P-TEFb). The transactivation domain of Tat binds directly to the CycT1 subunit of P-TEFb and induces loop(More)
Folding of the LTR promoter into dynamic G-quadruplex conformations has been shown to suppress its transcriptional activity in HIV-1. Here we sought to identify the proteins that control the folding of this region of proviral genome by inducing/stabilizing G-quadruplex structures. The implementation of electrophorethic mobility shift assay and pull-down(More)
G-quadruplexes are tetraplex structures of nucleic acids that can form in G-rich sequences. Their presence and functional role have been established in telomeres, oncogene promoters and coding regions of the human chromosome. In particular, they have been proposed to be directly involved in gene regulation at the level of transcription. Because the HIV-1(More)
Guanine-rich nucleic acids can fold into G-quadruplexes, secondary structures implicated in important regulatory functions at the genomic level in humans, prokaryotes and viruses. The remarkably high guanine content of the Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) genome prompted us to investigate both the presence of G-quadruplex forming sequences in the viral genome(More)