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Clerocidin, a diterpenoid with antibacterial and antitumor activity, stimulates in vitro DNA cleavage mediated by mammalian and bacterial topoisomerase (topo) II. Different from the classical topoisomerase poisons, clerocidin-stimulated breaks at guanines immediately preceding the sites of DNA cleavage are not resealed upon heat or salt treatment. To(More)
The cis-acting mRNA elements that promote programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting present a natural target for the rational design of antiretroviral chemotherapies. It has been commonly accepted that the HIV-1 frameshifting signal is special, because its downstream enhancer element consists of a simple mRNA stem loop rather than a more complex secondary(More)
[structure: see text] The interaction between the HIV-1 Tat protein and the TAR RNA element in the nascent viral genomic transcript is required for viral replication. An 11-residue beta-peptide (1), an all-beta homologue of the Arg-rich region Tat 47-57, binds TAR RNA with K(d) = 29 +/- 4 nM. A control beta-peptide (2) in which all Arg side chains are(More)
Replication of HIV requires the Tat protein, which activates elongation of RNA polymerase II transcription at the HIV-1 promoter by interacting with the cyclin T1 (CycT1) subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor complex b (P-TEFb). The transactivation domain of Tat binds directly to the CycT1 subunit of P-TEFb and induces loop(More)
OBJECTIVES A dynamic G-quadruplex region has been previously shown to form in the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of the HIV-1 integrated DNA genome. Inhibition of promoter activity and antiviral effects have been observed when this region was stabilized by BRACO-19, a trisubstituted acridine derivative that binds G-quadruplexes. Here, we aimed at(More)
G-Quadruplexes, noncanonical nucleic acid structures, act as silencers in the promoter regions of human genes; putative G-quadruplex forming sequences are also present in promoters of other mammals, yeasts, and prokaryotes. Here we show that also the HIV-1 LTR promoter exploits G-quadruplex-mediated transcriptional regulation with striking similarities to(More)
Folding of the LTR promoter into dynamic G-quadruplex conformations has been shown to suppress its transcriptional activity in HIV-1. Here we sought to identify the proteins that control the folding of this region of proviral genome by inducing/stabilizing G-quadruplex structures. The implementation of electrophorethic mobility shift assay and pull-down(More)
We have previously reported that stabilization of the G-quadruplex structures in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter suppresses viral transcription. Here we sought to develop new G-quadruplex ligands to be exploited as antiviral compounds by enhancing binding toward the viral G-quadruplex structures. We synthesized naphthalene diimide derivatives(More)
Bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are selective targets of fluoroquinolones. Topoisomerase IV versus gyrase and Gram-positive versus Gram-negative behavior was studied based on the different recognition of DNA sequences by topoisomerase-quinolone complexes. A careful statistical analysis of preferred bases was performed on a large number (>400) of(More)
Simocyclinone D8 (SD8) is known to affect Gram-positive bacteria only. By testing SD8 against several clinical isolates, we showed that SD8 resulted very active against Gram-negative bacteria from clinical specimens, while it was shown inactive against laboratory strains. The activity against the former was in part due to enhanced drug entry. In addition,(More)