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Viral tropism plays an important role in HIV pathogenesis. However, its correlation with the clinical outcome and following exposure to antiretroviral drugs are still unclear. HIV-1 co-receptor usage was examined in 206 infected individuals: 67 seroconverters, 52 chronically drug-naïve, and 87 antiretroviral-experienced patients. The V3 loop was sequenced(More)
HIV-specific T cells response and T cell activation are frequently seen in exposed seronegative individuals (ESN). In this study, we report HIV-specific response and level of T cell activation in ESN partners of HIV-infected patients presenting low or undetectable levels of HIV-RNA. We evaluated 24 HIV-serodiscordant couples. ESN were classified into three(More)
The level of CD8+ CD38+ T lymphocytes in blood correlates with disease progression in HIV-infected individuals, independently of the CD4 count. Effective antiretroviral therapy reduces this lymphocyte subset in parallel with plasma viremia, although CD38 expression on CD8+ cells does not normalize completely in most subjects, and might reflect residual HIV(More)
The mechanism of CD4(+) T cell depletion seen in HIV infection is largely mediated by increased apoptosis of these cells. The benefit of protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy to CD4(+) T cell recovery seems to involve more than its antiviral activity, and a direct antiapoptotic effect of PIs has been proposed to explain it. To test this(More)
BACKGROUND Factors influencing the depletion of CD4(+) cells and the restoration of CD4(+) cells after antiretroviral therapy are not completely understood. Recently, attention has been paid to interleukin (IL)-7 and its receptor (CD127). We analyzed the influence of T cell activation and of suppression of viremia with antiretroviral therapy on this system,(More)
BACKGROUND Immune activation is an independent surrogate marker of CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-infected patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces disease progression as a direct consequence of suppressing HIV replication. Immune function does not normalize completely in most subjects on HAART, however, perhaps reflecting residual HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) are critical for the control of viral infections. Although these cells can be recognized in most HIV-infected individuals, they fail to successfully control HIV replication. Distinct functional defects seem to limit their efficacy in HIV infection, although they have been not fully elucidated. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
Hydroxyurea (HU) is a cytostatic drug which has been used as an anti-HIV agent due mainly to its synergistic activity when combined with certain anti-retrovirals. In addition, HU might have a beneficial effect on parameters involved in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, such as immune activation. To test this hypothesis, the effect of HU on T cell(More)
CD38 expression on CD8(+) T cells was longitudinally assessed in 31 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with undetectable plasma viremia who had undergone highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for 12 months and were followed for a mean of 30 months thereafter. Overall, CD4(+)T cell counts increased during follow-up, whereas CD38(More)