Sara L Sawyer

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Primate genomes encode a variety of innate immune strategies to defend themselves against retroviruses. One of these, TRIM5alpha, can restrict diverse retroviruses in a species-specific manner. Thus, whereas rhesus TRIM5alpha can strongly restrict HIV-1, human TRIM5alpha only has weak HIV-1 restriction. The biology of TRIM5alpha restriction suggests that it(More)
Host genomes have adopted several strategies to curb the proliferation of transposable elements and viruses. A recently discovered novel primate defense against retroviral infection involves a single-stranded DNA-editing enzyme, APOBEC3G, that causes hypermutation of HIV. The HIV-encoded virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein targets APOBEC3G for(More)
The intracellular TRIM5alpha protein successfully inhibits HIV-1 infection in rhesus monkeys, but not in humans . A few amino acids in the virus-interacting SPRY domain were found to be responsible for most of this anti-viral specificity , raising the possibility that genetic variation among humans could result in TRIM5alpha proteins with a spectrum of(More)
TRIM5alpha provides a cytoplasmic block to retroviral infection, and orthologs encoded by some primates are active against HIV. Here, we present an evolutionary comparison of the TRIM5 gene to its closest human paralogs: TRIM22, TRIM34, and TRIM6. We show that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have a dynamic history of gene expansion and loss during the evolution of(More)
Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used(More)
Transferrin Receptor (TfR1) is the cell-surface receptor that regulates iron uptake into cells, a process that is fundamental to life. However, TfR1 also facilitates the cellular entry of multiple mammalian viruses. We use evolutionary and functional analyses of TfR1 in the rodent clade, where two families of viruses bind this receptor, to mechanistically(More)
Mcm10 has recently been found to play a crucial role in multiple steps of the DNA replication initiation process in eukaryotes. Here, we have examined the role of Mcm10 in assembling initiation factors at a well-characterized yeast replication origin, ARS1. We find that the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) components Cdc6 and Mcm7 associate with ARS1 in the(More)
Trim5alpha from primates (including humans), cows, and rabbits has been shown to be an active antiviral host gene that acts against a range of retroviruses. Although this suggests that Trim5alpha may be a common antiviral restriction factor among mammals, the status of Trim5 genes in rodents has been unclear. Using genomic and phylogenetic analyses, we(More)
In 2004, the first report of TRIM5α as a cellular antiretroviral factor triggered intense interest among virologists, particularly because some primate orthologs of TRIM5α have activity against HIV. Since that time, a complex and eventful evolutionary history of the TRIM5 locus has emerged. A review of the TRIM5 literature constitutes a veritable compendium(More)
A major limitation of high-throughput DNA sequencing is the high rate of erroneous base calls produced. For instance, Illumina sequencing machines produce errors at a rate of ~0.1-1 × 10(-2) per base sequenced. These technologies typically produce billions of base calls per experiment, translating to millions of errors. We have developed a unique library(More)