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Proper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis depends on the ability of glucocorticoids (GCs), mainly cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents, to access brain targets and regulate their own secretion. Being highly lipophilic, GCs have been assumed to passively diffuse through the cell membrane. However, the access of these GCs to(More)
Aortic graft infection, one of the most common fatal complications of aortovascular surgery, is managed mainly by the removal of infected graft material and re-establishment of vascular continuity using an extra-anatomical bypass or in situ graft replacement. Despite significant progress in perioperative, surgical, and medical treatments, the mortality and(More)
OBJECTIVE (i) To establish at a national level clinical outcomes from patients presenting with acute para-esophageal hernia (PEH); and (ii) to determine if a hospital volume-outcome relationship exists for the management of acute PEH. BACKGROUND Currently, no clear guidelines exist regarding the management of acute PEH, and practice patterns are based(More)
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging surgical approach in patients with severe aortic stenosis unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR). TAVI has been performed through both transfemoral and transapical approaches, each with a specific suitability criterion. A transaortic (TAo-TAVI) approach has been recently(More)
Cardiac catheterization is a procedure routinely performed worldwide, with an estimated amount of 61,000 coronary angioplasties performed in the UK annually. Associated mortality--in the region of 0.1-0.2%--is minimal and complication rate approximately 1.5%. The most serious complications described are embolic stroke, cardiac chamber perforation, aortic(More)
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