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OBJECTIVE To describe trends in pregnancy-related mortality and risk factors for pregnancy-related deaths in the United States for the years 1991 through 1997. METHODS In collaboration with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and state health departments, the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System, part of the Division of Reproductive(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal mortality in Afghanistan is uniformly identified as an issue of primary public-health importance. To guide the implementation of reproductive-health services, we examined the numbers, causes, and preventable factors for maternal deaths among women in four districts. METHODS We did a retrospective cohort study of women of reproductive(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is important in the HIV epidemic and may contribute to increased HIV transmission. We evaluated the effect of suppressive acyclovir therapy on cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding. METHODS HIV-1- and herpes simplex virus type 2-coinfected women aged 18-49 years with CD4 counts >200 cells/microL were enrolled in a(More)
The aim of this study is to estimate HIV prevalence and assess sexual behaviors in a high-risk and difficult-to-reach population of clients of female sex workers (FSWs). A modified variation of respondent-driven sampling was conducted among FSWs in Bangkok, where FSWs recruited 3 FSW peers, 1 client, and 1 nonpaying partner. After informed consent was(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the association between maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity and genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding with perinatal HIV transmission. STUDY DESIGN Evaluation of women who participated in a 1996-1997 perinatal HIV transmission prevention trial in Thailand. METHODS In this nonbreastfeeding population, women(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess risk factors for legal induced abortion-related deaths. METHODS This is a descriptive epidemiologic study of women dying of complications of induced abortions. Numerator data are from the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System. Denominator data are from the Abortion Surveillance System, which monitors the number and characteristics of(More)
BACKGROUND There is no completely satisfactory treatment for multiple actinic keratoses (AKs). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of short incubation, broad-area application of delta-aminolevulinic acid followed by exposure to activating light-photodynamic therapy (delta-ALA/PDT) for treatment of AKs and background photodamage. The benefit of pretreatment(More)
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely adopted as a method to assess HIV and other sexually transmitted infection prevalence and risk factors among hard-to-reach populations. Failures to properly implement RDS in several settings could potentially have been avoided, had formative research been conducted. However, to date there is no published literature(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe characteristics and risk factors for pregnancy-related deaths due to cardiomyopathy during 1991-1997 and to assess reasons for the increasing trend in reporting of pregnancy-related deaths due to cardiomyopathy from 1979 through 1997. METHODS We used data from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention's Pregnancy Mortality(More)
Factors increasing genital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding may increase female-to-male HIV transmission risk. We examined HIV shedding in 67 women with HIV type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, during 2 menstrual cycles. Shedding occurred in 60%, 48%, and 54% of samples during the follicular, periovulatory, and luteal phases,(More)