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W orldwide, an estimated 493,243, cases of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) occur each year and 273,505 women die of the disease. 1 There is a global disparity in the incidence of cervical cancer, with the burden of cases occurring in less developed countries (83%), where effective cervical cancer screening and treatment services have often been difficult to(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether integrating family planning services into HIV care is associated with increased use of more effective contraceptive methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, implant, injectable or oral contraceptives). DESIGN Cluster-randomized trial. SETTING Eighteen public HIV clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS Women(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. INTERVENTION Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. DESIGN A cluster-randomized trial. SETTING Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Concerns have been raised about efavirenz reducing the effectiveness of contraceptive implants. We aimed to establish whether pregnancy rates differ between HIV-positive women who use various contraceptive methods and either efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. METHODS We did this retrospective cohort study(More)
Research in sub-Saharan Africa has shown significant diversity in how HIV influences infected couples' fertility intentions. Supporting HIV-infected, sero-concordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa to make informed choices about their fertility options has not received sufficient attention. In-depth interviews were conducted among 23 HIV-positive,(More)
OBJECTIVE To reveal areas of research/knowledge related to social inequities and cervical cancer. METHODS A Medline search was performed looking for US based research on cervical cancer and social inequities since 1990. The papers found were organized into cells defined by a "cancer disparities grid." RESULTS The majority of research published about(More)
BACKGROUND Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The main intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was first introduced with(More)
BACKGROUND Abortion during the second trimester of pregnancy accounts for 10-15% of abortions performed worldwide. Dilation and evacuation (D&E) is the preferred method of second-trimester abortion in most parts of the developed world. Cervical preparation is recommended for dilation and curettage (D&C) after 12 weeks gestation and is standard practice for(More)
Despite increasing efforts to address the reproductive health needs of people living with HIV, a high unmet need for contraception exists among HIV+ women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explores the fertility intentions and family planning (FP) preferences of Kenyan women accessing HIV treatment. We conducted 30 semistructured interviews and(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of sweetened dried cranberries elicits urinary anti-adherence properties against Escherichia coli as previously demonstrated with cranberry juice and/or sweetened cranberry juice cocktail, compared to unsweetened raisins. DESIGN Uropathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained from five(More)