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The cognitive hallmark of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an extraordinary inability to form new memories. For many years, this dementia was attributed to nerve-cell death induced by deposits of fibrillar amyloid beta (Abeta). A newer hypothesis has emerged, however, in which early memory loss is considered a synapse failure caused by soluble Abeta(More)
Oxidative stress is a major aspect of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. We have investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and neuronal binding of Abeta oligomers (also known as ADDLs). ADDLs are known to accumulate in brain tissue of AD patients and are considered centrally related to pathogenesis. Using hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found(More)
Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease has shown initial success in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and in human patients. However, because of meningoencephalitis in clinical trials of active vaccination, approaches using therapeutic antibodies may be preferred. As a novel antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies, the current study(More)
Recent studies have indicated an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistance. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the link between these two pathologies have not been elucidated. Here we show that signal transduction by neuronal insulin receptors (IR) is strikingly sensitive to disruption by(More)
Amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta(1-42)) is a self-associating peptide that becomes neurotoxic upon aggregation. Toxicity originally was attributed to the presence of large, readily formed Abeta fibrils, but a variety of other toxic species are now known. The current study shows that Abeta(1-42) can self-assemble into small, stable globular assemblies free of(More)
The isthmic complex is part of a visual midbrain circuit thought to be involved in stimulus selection and spatial attention. In birds, this circuit is composed of the nuclei isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc), pars parvocellularis (Ipc), and pars semilunaris (SLu), all of them reciprocally connected to the ipsilateral optic tectum (TeO). The Imc conveys(More)
Bleomycin inhibits hepatic microsomal ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity in both the athymic (nude) mouse and the rat four days after a single injection. This inhibition occurred both with subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections. With multiple dose chronic treatment, s.c. injections resulted in decreases in both enzymatic activity and cytochrome P450(More)
During chick embryogenesis, cells destined to form cardiac myocytes are located within the primitive streak at stage 3 in the same relative anterior-posterior distribution as in the prelooped heart. The most rostral cells contribute to the extreme anterior pole of the heart, the bulbus cordis, and the most caudal to the extreme posterior end, the sinoatrial(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by presence of extracellular fibrillar A beta in amyloid plaques, intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles consisting of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau and elevated brain levels of soluble A beta oligomers (ADDLs). A major question is how these disparate facets of AD pathology are mechanistically related. Here we(More)