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The cognitive hallmark of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an extraordinary inability to form new memories. For many years, this dementia was attributed to nerve-cell death induced by deposits of fibrillar amyloid beta (Abeta). A newer hypothesis has emerged, however, in which early memory loss is considered a synapse failure caused by soluble Abeta(More)
Oxidative stress is a major aspect of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. We have investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and neuronal binding of Abeta oligomers (also known as ADDLs). ADDLs are known to accumulate in brain tissue of AD patients and are considered centrally related to pathogenesis. Using hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found(More)
Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease has shown initial success in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and in human patients. However, because of meningoencephalitis in clinical trials of active vaccination, approaches using therapeutic antibodies may be preferred. As a novel antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies, the current study(More)
Recent studies have indicated an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistance. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the link between these two pathologies have not been elucidated. Here we show that signal transduction by neuronal insulin receptors (IR) is strikingly sensitive to disruption by(More)
Astrocytes possess plasma membrane glutamate transporters that rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular milieu and thereby prevent excitotoxic injury to neurons. Cellular oxidative stress is increased in neural tissues in a variety of acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress increases neuronal(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by presence of extracellular fibrillar A beta in amyloid plaques, intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles consisting of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau and elevated brain levels of soluble A beta oligomers (ADDLs). A major question is how these disparate facets of AD pathology are mechanistically related. Here we(More)
Severe congenital neutropenia type 4 (SCN4) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the third subunit of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC3). Its core features are congenital neutropenia and a prominent venous skin pattern, and affected individuals have variable birth defects. Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) is caused by(More)
Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria extracts. The identification of epiphytic bacteria was(More)
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