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The comet assay is widely used to measure DNA damage and repair in basic research, genotoxicity testing and human biomonitoring. The conventional format has 1 or 2 gels on a microscope slide, 1 sample per slide. To increase throughput, we have designed and tested a system with 12 smaller gels on one slide, allowing incubation of individual gels with(More)
Single cell gel electrophoresis, or the comet assay, is widely used to measure DNA damage and repair. However, the behaviour of the DNA under the conditions used for the comet assay is not fully understood. In developing a method for studying specific gene sequences within comets, using 'padlock probes' (circularizable oligonucleotide probes), we have first(More)
Many modern molecular labelling techniques result in bright point signals. Signals from molecules that are detected directly inside a cell can be captured by fluorescence microscopy. Signals representing different types of molecules may be randomly distributed in the cells or show systematic patterns, indicating that the corresponding molecules have(More)
In this study we utilized padlock probes and rolling circle amplification as a mean to detect and study the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in cultured cells and in infected tissue. Porcine circovirus type 2 is a single-stranded circular DNA virus associated with several severe diseases, porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD) in pigs, such as(More)
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a human pathogen that causes a severe disease with high fatality rate for which there is currently no specific treatment. Knowledge regarding its replication cycle is also highly limited. In this study we developed an in situ technique for studying the different stages during the replication of CCHFV. By(More)
We used padlock probes to study the rate of gene specific repair of three genes, OGG1 (8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase-1), XPD (xeroderma pigmentosum group D), and HPRT (hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase) in human lymphocytes, in relation to the repair rate of Alu repeats and total genomic DNA. Padlock probes offer highly specific detection of(More)
In their paper from 2006, Annan and Hargreaves present an estimate for the uncertainty of climate sensitivity obtained by using Bayes' theorem to combine information from different sources. In this comment article we critisize two aspects of their reasoning , namely using probability density functions and likelihood functions interchangeably 5 and the(More)
Climate–aerosol interactions in India are studied by employing the global climate–aerosol model ECHAM5HAM and the GAINS inventory for anthropogenic aerosol emissions. Model validation is done for black carbon surface concentrations in Mukteshwar and for features of the monsoon circulation. Seasonal cycles and spatial distributions of radiative forcing and(More)
Padlock probes and rolling circle amplification are techniques which can be used for detection of DNA sequences in situ with high specificity and high signal to noise. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay is used to measure DNA damage and repair in cells. Here, we describe how padlock probes and rolling circle amplification can be used to detect DNA(More)