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Human mtDNA is transcribed from both strands, producing polycistronic RNA species that are immediately processed. Discrete RNA units are matured by the addition of nucleotides at their 3' termini: -CCA trinucleotide is added to mt-tRNAs, whilst mt-rRNAs and mt-mRNAs are oligo- or polyadenylated, respectively. The cis-acting elements, enzymes and indeed the(More)
UNLABELLED Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, lethal neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, caused by an uncontrolled expansion of a CAG dynamic mutation in the coding region of the IT15gene. Although a majority of patients have a midlife onset of the disease, in a small number of patients the disease manifests before 20(More)
The diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder is often difficult. Therefore, new approaches and diagnostic criteria are being developed. One of these tests is the aerobic forearm exercise test, a screening tool that can contribute to assess whether or not the patient suffers from a mitochondrial myopathy. With this simple, non-invasive test, the oxidative(More)
The pathological nature of Leigh syndrome is highly variable and depends on the underlying mitochondrial or nuclear genome defect. Mitochondrial m.8993T>G and m.8993T>C mutations are responsible for both NARP (neurogenic weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa) and Leigh syndrome depending on the amount of mutant mtDNA. The clinical findings of Leigh(More)
AIMS Description of the clinical course in a child compound heterozygous for POLG1 mutations, neuropathology findings and results of dietary treatment based on fasting avoidance and long chain triglycerides (LCT) restriction. RESULTS At 3(1/2) months of age the patient presented with severe hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, moderate ketosis and hepatic(More)
BACKGROUND To strengthen research and differential diagnostics of mitochondrial disorders, we constructed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (h-MitoArray) allowing expression analysis of 1632 human genes involved in mitochondrial biology, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and apoptosis. Using h-MitoArray we analyzed gene expression(More)
BACKGROUND Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiencies are heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorders. CoQ2 mutations have been identified only rarely in patients. All affected individuals presented with nephrotic syndrome in the first year of life. METHODS An infant is studied with myoclonic seizures and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first months of(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of an unstable polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG)n repeat in exon 1 of the HTT gene, which translates into an extended polyglutamine tract in the protein. Laboratory diagnosis of HD involves estimation of the number of CAG repeats. Molecular genetic testing for HD is offered in a wide range of laboratories(More)
Disorders of the mitochondrial energy metabolism are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. An increasingly recognized subgroup is caused by defective mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis, with defects in 13 genes being linked to human disease to date. Mutations in three of them, NFU1, BOLA3, and IBA57, affect the assembly of(More)
BACKGROUND In muscle cytochrome oxidase (COX) negative fibers (mitochondrial mosaics) have often been visualized. METHODS COX activity staining of liver for light and electron microscopy, muscle stains, blue native gel electrophoresis and activity assays of respiratory chain proteins, their immunolocalisation, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis. (More)